moderate liberal opposition

  • Created by: jingerb99
  • Created on: 02-06-21 15:10
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  • moderate liberal opposition
    • Russia contained few literate and educated Russians
      • number and influence grew with changes of later 19th century
      • had wealth and time to consider political matters
      • many travelled abroad and despaired at Russia's political and social stagnation
      • some believed in philosophical ideas
        • nihilism
        • anarchism
    • westernisers
      • wanted Russia to adopt western values
      • hoped for western-style economic and military reform
      • favoured representative assemblies
        • civil liberties
        • less power to the orthodox church
      • expressed views through zemstva
        • hoped increase in local decision-making would lead to greater national representation
      • disappointed by Alex III's zemstva restriction powers in 1890
    • slavophiles
      • wanted to preserve Russian culture and heritage as country modernised
      • preferred to retain peasant-based society
      • wanted to preserve principles of orthodox church
      • influence declined in 1890s
        • industrialisation progressed
        • western-style socialist movements began to grow
    • 1891-1892 famine significant point in opposition growth
      • government failed to provide adequate relief
      • zemstva largely assumed responsibility for improving conditions
      • intelligentsia demanded greater role in public affairs
    • renewed zemstva-led calls for national body to advise government
    • intelligentsia split by 1890s
      • some remained liberals
        • continued hoping for tsardom reform
      • others attracted by Marxist theory and socialism


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