Operant conditioning

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Corinnaxo
  • Created on: 21-04-14 15:09
View mindmap
  • Operant conditioning
    • The cat could only escape by working out how to open the hatch
    • The law of exercise
    • Antecedent draws out behaviour results in consequences
  • Thorndike: Observed cats and concluded that we learn through the consequences of our actions
    • Operant conditioning
      • The cat could only escape by working out how to open the hatch
      • The law of exercise
      • Antecedent draws out behaviour results in consequences
  • Incentive to escape: deprived the cats of food and placed food outside the box
    • The more times we carry out a task, the better we become at it
      • At first, it took the cat 5 mins to escape, but by the 20th trial it only took them 5 secs
        • Experience leads to improvement
          • The law of effect
            • Link between behaviour and its consequences
              • The law of effect
              • Behaviour + pleasurable outcome = repetition of the behaviour
                • Behaviour + negative outcome = no repetition of the behaviour
                  • Stimulus-response reflex action
                    • Skinner: created objective methods for studying behaviour e.g. skinner box to experiment with animals
                      • Conditioning: learning and operant: anything that reinforces our behaviour
                        • Reinforcers: anything that increases the frequency of a response
                          • e.g. getting chocolate for handing in your work so you are more likely to do it
                        • Primary reinforcers
                          • Reinforcers: anything that increases the frequency of a response
                            • e.g. getting chocolate for handing in your work so you are more likely to do it
                          • Any reinforcer that satisfies a biological need e.g. food
                        • Secondary reinforcers
                          • These are learned and do not satisfy biological needs e.g. applause or house points
                            • Secondary reinforcers
                            • Reinforcement: the way in which a reinforcer is presented
                              • Negative reinforcement: removing something unpleasant
                            • Positive reinforcement: presenting something pleasant
                              • Reinforcement: the way in which a reinforcer is presented
                                • Negative reinforcement: removing something unpleasant
                            • Punishment: presenting something unpleasant
                              • Skinner argued that punishment is less effective because it creates feelings of anger/fear
                                • Punishment: presenting something unpleasant
                                • Response cost: When you regularly and reliably terminate a reinforcer
                                  • Successive approximation/shaping
                                    • Speeds up learning
                                      • Successive approximation/shaping
                                      • Reinforcing behaviour that successively (following one after another) approximates (closely resembling) the desired behaviour

                                        Comments

                                        No comments have yet been made

                                        Similar Psychology resources:

                                        See all Psychology resources »See all Learning approach resources »