Operant conditioning

  • Created by: debbieoxt
  • Created on: 16-05-18 16:07
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  • Operant Conditioning
    • Positive reinforcement - adding something pleasant to reinforce behaviour.
    • Negative reinforcement - something unpleasant is removed so the behaviour is reinforced.
    • Positive punishment - something is added that leads to an unpleasant consequence. Behaviour is weakened.
    • Negative punishment - something pleasant is being removed so behaviour is weakened.
    • Primary reinforcers - the reward is a basic need, like food or warmth.
    • Secondary reinforcers - the reward is something that can get a basic need, like money, tokens or another person.
    • Continuous reinforcement - some behaviour may be reinforced every time it is seen.
    • Partial reinforcement - a behaviour may be reinforced some of the time.
      • Fixed interval - the response is rewarded only after a fixed amount of time.
      • Variable interval - occurs when a response is rewarded after an unpredictable amount of time.
      • Fixed ratio - the response is reinforced only after a fixed number of responses.
      • Variable ratio - occurs when a response is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses.
    • Behaviour modification - if rewards or punishments are planned so that certain behaviours are produced and others are dropped, this is modifying the behaviour.
    • Behaviour shaping - shaping means gradually working towards the required behaviour or punishments. You reinforce any behaviour that closely resembles the desired behaviour.


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