Nucleic Acids As Biology OCR

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  • Created by: Nita
  • Created on: 19-11-12 19:33
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  • Nucleic Acids
    • RNA
      • Polynucleotide
      • Single Stranded
      • Made up of nucleotides
        • Adenine
        • Uracil
        • Guanine
        • Cytosine
    • DNA
      • Made up of nucleotides
        • Thymine
        • Adenine
        • Cytosine
        • Guanine
      • Double Stranded
      • Polynucleotide
      • Formation of DNA Molecule
        • 2 types of nucleotide bases
          • Purines
            • Adenine
              • Thymine
              • 2 hydrogen bonds inbetween
                • Thymine
            • Guanine
              • 3 hydrogen bonds inbetween
                • Cytosine
          • Pyramidines
            • Purines
              • Adenine
                • 2 hydrogen bonds inbetween
                • Guanine
                  • 3 hydrogen bonds inbetween
                    • Cytosine
          • Strands are antiparrales because they run in opposite directions
            • Sugars are pointing in opposite directions
          • Antipaarallel chains twist like rope ladder to form the final structure
            • Double Helix Structure
        • REPLICATION
          • Double helix is untwisted
            • Hydrogen bonds between the bases are broken
              • DNA unzips to expose bases
                • FREE DNA nucleotides are hydrogen bonded onto their exposed complimentary bases
                  • DNA POLYMERADE catalyses the formation of covalent bonds between the phosphate group of one molecule and the sugar of the next
                    • This continues all the way down until there are 2 identical DNA strands
                      • These are PROOF READ by DNA POLYMERASE to prevent any mistakes
      • GENE
        • A SEQUENCE OF DNA NUCLEOTIDES
          • CODES FOR A POLYPEPTIDE
      • PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
        • The required gene can be exposed by splitting the hydrogen bonds that hold the double helix together in that region
          • RNA  NUCLEOTIDES form a complimentary strand
            • mRNA ( a copy of the DNA coding strand)
              • The mRNA peels away from the DNA and leaves the NUCLEUS throught the NUCLEUR PORES
                • The  mRNA then attaches to the ribosome
                  • the tRNA brings amino acids to the ribosome in the correct order according to the base sequence of the mRNA
                    • THE AMINO ACIDS ARE JOINED TOGETHER BY PEPTIDE BONDS
                      • TO GIVE A PROTEIN WITH A SPECIFIC TERTIARY STRUCTURE
    • DNA
      • Made up of nucleotides
        • Thymine
        • Adenine
        • Cytosine
        • Guanine
      • Double Stranded
      • Polynucleotide
      • Formation of DNA Molecule
        • 2 types of nucleotide bases
          • Pyramidines
          • Strands are antiparrales because they run in opposite directions
            • Sugars are pointing in opposite directions
          • Antipaarallel chains twist like rope ladder to form the final structure
            • Double Helix Structure
        • REPLICATION
          • Double helix is untwisted
            • Hydrogen bonds between the bases are broken
              • DNA unzips to expose bases
                • FREE DNA nucleotides are hydrogen bonded onto their exposed complimentary bases
                  • DNA POLYMERADE catalyses the formation of covalent bonds between the phosphate group of one molecule and the sugar of the next
                    • This continues all the way down until there are 2 identical DNA strands
                      • These are PROOF READ by DNA POLYMERASE to prevent any mistakes

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