PSYCHOLOGY: Non-Verbal Communication

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  • Non-verbal communication
    • What is it?
      • Non-verbal communication is the act of conveying a message through actions that do not require vocal sounds.
    • What is involved?
      • Eye-contact
      • Body Language
        • Posture
        • Postural echo
        • Gesture
        • Touch
      • Paralinguistics (verbal communication)
      • Hemispheres of the brain
    • Eye contact
      • Argyle
        • Smooth, flowing communication
        • Interrupting eye contact makes pauses in conversation
      • Kendon
        • Signals turn taking in conversation
      • Pupil dilation
        • Seems more attractive and friendly
        • Hess
        • Has an unconscious but powerful effect
    • Body Language
      • Posture
        • Open posture
          • Open arms and uncrossed legs
          • MeGinley, Lefevre and McGinley
        • Closed posture
          • MeGinley, Lefevre and McGinley
          • Crossed legs and/or crossed arms
      • Postural echo
        • When a person in a conversation mirrors another person's posture
        • McGinley
        • Makes people more comfortable and friendly
      • Gesture
        • Information is conveyed through body movements
        • Lynn and Mynier
      • Touch
        • Fisher, Rytting and Heslin
        • Touch can have a positive and unconscious effect on attitudes
    • Verbal
      • Paralinguistics
        • What is it?
          • Vocal features that accompany speech
            • Tone of voice
              • The way words are spoken to convey emotion
            • Intonation
              • Inflection in the voice when speaking
            • Emphasis
              • Giving prominence to some words more than others
        • Davitz and Davitz
        • Argyle, Alkema and Gilmour
    • Hemispheres of the brain
      • Sackeim
      • Left side of the face expresses more emotions than the right side
      • Right half of the body is controlled by the left hemisphere. Left side is controlled by the right hemisphere.
      • The human brain is divided into two halves, called the left and right hemispheres


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