Neo-marxism and ideologies.

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  • Neo-marxism and Ideologies
    • Belief that marxist view that the beliefs of all members of society are directly determined by the economic system- is too deterministic.
    • KEY STUDY: Raymond Williams - class and ideology:
      • He claimed that the R/C has a more individualistic culture (believing people succeed by pursuing their own individual interests). While W/C culture is more collectivist (believing people succeed through group action, for example, a trade union going on strike).
      • R/C ideology is not always dominant but can be challenged by residual ideology (the ideology of the declining class, such as landowners) and emergent ideology (the ideology of the new class that is developing, such as rich celebrities).
    • KEY STUDY: Gramsci- Dual consciousness -
      • Argued that members of society possess a dual consciousness.
        • They are partly influenced by R/C ideology through media, education and religion.
        • Know they are being exploited through low wages and poor working conditions.


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