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  • Neo-Marxism
    • Engles
      • Religion can be a force for change
      • Ideology powerful force in convincing people to change
      • Few rulers have tried to prevent participation in religion
      • Religious leader more likely to recognise explotation
      • Religious leaders not easily repressed
      • Recognised the active role that religion effecting revolutionary social change
      • Christian sects vs Romans
      • Source of resistance
        • Force for change
    • Antonio Gramsci
      • Rejected traditional marxist view that the superstructure was dependent on economy
        • In his view superstructure is more autonomous and independent
      • Control over consciousness church held
        • Hegemony
      • Popular forms of religion had emerged which expressed and supported oppressed classes
      • Religous beliefs and practices could devlop
        • Challenge ruling class ideology
          • Support working class consciousness and liberation
    • Otto Maduro
      • Possibility religion plays a progressive role in political sturggles
      • Societies which religion is dominant & conservative
        • Social liberation can be achieved if significant changes occur withing churche
          • Could occur if the opressed find all forms of protest blocked
            • Take discontent to Churches
          • Suffering and poverty of oppressed may be voiced by members of clergy
            • Express discontent of oppressed
              • Make them more aware of their exploitation & help deal with oppressors
      • Examples
        • Martin Luther King
        • Islamic revolution
        • Desmond Tutu
        • Oscar Romero


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