gender

  • Created by: sophiemai
  • Created on: 21-04-19 08:58
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  • gender
    • sex role stereotypes
      • sex - biological, gender -psychological
      • sex role stereotypes = shared expectations of gender across society & culture. often sexist
      • eval; 1- supporting evidence nature 2- supporting evidence nurture 3- real life application 4- real life application
    • bem sex role inventory
      • androgyny- high amount of both masculine & feminine treats
        • done with questionare - fit into created categories
      • eval; 1- validity of scale 2- reliability of scale 3- contrasting evidence 4- reductionist
    • chromosomes & hormones
      • 23rd = gender Y- fem X- mas producing different amounts of hormones
        • testosterone - male, increased sex drive, muscel size, agression &testes
        • oestrogen - fem, periods, *****, PMS, mainly 2nd characteristics
        • oxcytocin - more women, after birth & milk for attachment, help stress, during sex - equal
        • eval; 1- david reimer support 2- trans support 3- contradictory 4- reductionist
    • A- typical sex chromosomes
      • klinefelters
        • XXY- in men, physical - less body hair, often infertile, psychological - shy, poorly developed lang & reading
      • turners
        • X - in women, physical - no period breasts, webbed neck, psychological - higher than average reading, socially immature, lowever visio spatial skills
      • eval; 1- nature 2- nurture 3- real life application 4- genralisability of data
    • cognitive explanation
      • kohlberg's stage theory - understanding of gender develops with age
        • gender identity- 2y= identify self, 3y= identify others but not perminate
        • gender stability - 4y= their gender will always be the same - others less so
        • gender consistancy - 6/7y= no longer confused and seek appropriate role models
        • eval; 1- sypporting evidence 2- matches biological age 3- age differences 4- gender differences
    • gender schema theory
      • set of beliefs that actively increase with age - starts developing as soon as they reach gender identity. at 6 ys detailed and ridgid  - tend to ignore anything that doesnt fit ther schema
      • eval; 1- supporting evidence 2- real life application 3- over simplistic 4- individual differences
    • pychodynamic explanations
      • electra complex -
        • desire mum - blames mum for lack of own penis, sexually desires father, penis = power, decides baby is better than penis , then identifies with mother again - so identifies with mother internalising her behaviours
      • oedipus complex -
        • dudes have castration fear due to loving their mother and fearing dads wraith, tries to hide by internalising dads identiy as his own
      • eval; 1- supporting evidence 2- contraryevidence 3- gender bias 4- family differences
    • the influence of culture & media
      • culture
        • allows us to tell whether behaviours nature or nurture, med found that in other triad gender expectations are completely switched - suggesting nurture
        • eval; 1- mead research = misleading 2- cultural similarities
      • media
        • any form of comunication that could influence gender understanding. research shows that adverts hold very ridgid stereotypes - men = ambitious, independant, advice givers, women = dependant, advice seekers
        • eval; 1- cause & effect 2- real life application
    • social learning theory
      • all behaviours are learnt, we see people we want to identify with - role models- and throughh direct, indirect and vicarious reinforcement behaviours are gained
        • 4 stages; 1- attention 2- retention 3- motivation 4- motor reproduction
      • eval; 1- supporting evidence 2- explains changes over time 3- ignores roles of biological factors 4- comapare to psychodynamic
    • A - typical gender development
      • biological
        • brain sex theory - structural differences  - bed nucleus terminals
        • role of chromosomes - twin study lookig at hereitability of GID
        • eval; 1- supporting evidence 2- twin studies 3- reductionist 4- socially sensitie research
      • social explanation
        • psychodynamic explaination- GID in men due to extreme separation
        • cognitive explanation - dual pathway theory 1=normal gender schema  development, 2= person has different interests which are eventually incorporated into schema
        • eval; 1- supporting evidence 2- gender bias 3- not full explainations 4- fails to identify alternative reasons

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