Muscularskeletal system

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  • Muscularskeletal System
    • Skeletal System
      • Role
        • Supports muscles
        • protects delicate parts of body
        • muscles attach to bones and once contracted, movement occurs
        • gives us our structural shape and creates levers
        • mineral storage
        • Blood cell production
      • Articulating bones
        • where two or more bones meet to allow movement at a joint
      • Movement
        • muscles are attached to bones via tendons, forming levers
        • Joints
          • an area of the body where two or more bones meet to allow a range of movements
          • Synovial Joints
            • most common type of joint
            • Ligaments
              • elastic fibre, attach bone to bone, keeps joint stable by restriction of movement
              • protect joints by absorption of shock
            • Tendons
              • anchor muscle to bone, allow muscles to move move skeleton
              • non-elastic cords, can be torn if subjected to too much force
            • ball-and socket joint
              • allow movement in all directions
            • Hinge joint
              • only allow forward and backwards movement
        • Movement at synovial joints
          • flexion - decrease in angle of bones at a joint
          • extension - increase in angle of bones at a joint
          • abduction - movement at a bone or limb away from the mid-line of the body
          • adduction - movement of a bone or limb towards the mid-line of the body
          • rotation - a circular movement around a joint
          • dorsi-flexion - the action of pulling toes towards the body
          • plantar-flexion - the action of pointing toes away from the body
    • Muscular system
      • Involuntary Muscles
        • found in and around organs
        • works without conscious control
        • have to constantly contract to allow crucial body functions
      • Voluntary muscles
        • moves the body
        • stabilise our joints during movement
        • maintains posture
        • make up 40% of body weight in men (less in women)
      • Movement
        • muscles can only contract and pull
        • muscles are arranged in pairs - antagonistic pairs
          • one contracts (agonist) and one relaxes (antagonist)
        • muscle contraction
          • isometric
            • static contraction
          • isotonic
            • concentric - most common, muscle shortens as it contracts
            • eccentric - muscle lengthens as it contracts, usually downwards phase of movement


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