Medical Ethics

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  • Morality
    • Fertility Treatment
      • Medical treatment to help a woman became pregant
      • IVF
        • Practice of fertilising an egg in a petri dish which is then implanted into the womb; it is a non sexual process of pregancy
          • This treatment is used when there are no problems with the eggs and sperm but they are unable to to become fertilised naturally
        • Process to assist couples to become pregant
        • Low success rate, high number of embryos are destroyed, its expensive
      • AIH + AID
        • Artificial Insemination by husband or donor
        • Sperm is collected and artificially placed high into the woman's womb to increase the chances of egg and sperm meeting and fertilising
        • Process allows people to have their own children. If the man in infertile or carring a genetic illness it still allows the couple to have a child by donor
        • Low success rate, using donor materials can be seen as adultery, potential problems over knowing the real father when child is older
      • Surrogacy
        • Couple are helped to have a child by another woman; the second woman is made pregnant (artificial needs), takes the full pregnancy to full term and then returns the baby to the couple
        • Process allows people to have own couple. Where a woman can't become or stay pregnant, this allows the couple to have child
        • Using donor materials can be seen as adultery. Surrogate may become attached to the baby and not want to give baby to couple
    • Helping medicine
      • The term refers to blood transfusions and organ transplants.
        • Religious believers believe that they save lives, that we should help each other, that we have a duty to look after the sick. They also believe they are genuine acts of kindness and compassion as the person donating has no idea who they will be helping
      • Blood transfusion
        • The giving/ receiving of matched blood for medical purposes
          • Reasons for receiving blood transfusions as to replace lost blood during surgery, to treat certain inherited blood disorders.
            • Jehovahs Witnesses would reject blood transfusions because in the Bible it says 'life is in the blood' and this prohibits them from taking in any blood
      • Organ transplantation
        • Operation to replace a faulty organ eg kidney transplant
        • Organ damage can affect our sancity of life because we could die. When person gets a transplant they face a lifetime of medication to make sure their body dosen't reject the organ
      • Xenotranplantation
        • Transplantation using animal parts
          • Use  heart valve from pig
    • The human embryo and fertilisation act
      • Makes rules about storage of eggs and sperm. Guidelines on experiments on living humans. Regulates any fertility treatment
      • Embryology
        • Research using embryos (up to 14 days old) in order to improve knowledge about pregnancy and the begging of life
        • Each of those embryos was a potenial life which is the biggest problem for most people against this type of work
          • Research is giving important information to better understand very early pregnancy. Makes good use of embryos that were going to be destroyed. Helps understand very early foetal develpment
      • Genetic engineering
        • Removal of swapping of genetic material within embryos to try to remove the likelihood for a disease
          • Fighting some illnesses before they even get started. Improving chances and quality of life of some people.
            • Destruction of embryos is part of the process, huge cost are involved, believe its 'playing god'
      • Stem Cell research
        • Research using stem cells, usually from embryos and umbilical cords; stem cells have the ability to become any type of cells; used in treatments of illness
          • Process could provide an alternative to harvesting organs from dead people. Improving chances of quality of life
            • Huge cost, playing God, destruction on embryos
      • Human cloning
        • creation of the exact DNA replica of a person
        • Therapeutic Cloning
          • Cloning of tissue or organs to replace failing ones. Aim to provide organ that body doesn't reject and reduces need for medication
        • Improve chances of quality of life.
          • Huge cost. playing God, destruction of embryos
    • Christianity
      • He has set a plan for our lives. Go forth and multiply
        • God gave doctors their wisdom
    • Islam
      • Allah gives life to who he chooses. Having children is seen as a duty for Muslims
        • He saves a life, it would be as if he saved the life of all people


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