Monoclonal Antibodies

Monoclonal antibodies, their production and their uses

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  • Created by: HayatF
  • Created on: 26-02-16 18:08
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  • Monoclonal Antibodies
    • Production of monoclonal antibodies
      • Fuse tumour cells with the B-lymphocytes
        • WHY? Tumour cells (myeloma) have no hayflick limit and can reproduce at a fast rate - this means that we can produce lots of monoclonal antibodies
        • WHY?         B-lymphocytes are the white blood cells that remember which antibodies are most effective for which antigens.
        • This fusion is called a HYBRIDOMA
          • Hybridomas then mass-produce monoclonal antibodies to fight the pathogen.
    • Monoclonal antibodies are used in...
      • Cancer treatment
        • Monoclonal antibodies can be used to transport drugs directly to a tumour cell
          • Because of their high specificity, healthy cells are not damaged in this treatment.
            • However, in non-monoclonal antibody cancer treatments, the drugs are in the blood stream and can attack healthy cells.
            • This means there are less side-effects.
      • Diagnosis of blood clots
        • Blood clots form a mesh of blood plasma. If monoclonal antibodies are attached to a radioactive element, they can detect blood clots.
          • Because of their high specificity, monoclonal antibodies do not harm any healthy cells during this diagnosis.
          • The monoclonal antibodies circulate the body through the blood and will get trapped in any blood clots (if there are any).
            • The radioactive element allows the monoclonal antibodies to show up on camera. If there is a large group of radioactivity in a clump, that means the monoclonal antibodies are caught in a blood clot.
      • Pregnancy testing
        • HCG is a hormone produced during pregnancy that tells the body not to shed the uterus lining and helps form the placenta to provide the growing foetus with nutrients.
        • Urine is applied to the test strip.
          • If a hormone called HCG is present, it will attach onto monoclonal antibodies (along with a colour dye) and be passed onto the next zone of the pregnancy test
            • As the urine sample continues to move up the strip, the HCG hormone will stick onto the second zone, along with the monoclonal antibodies and the dye
              • If the tester is pregnant and there are high levels of HCG, then the dye will show that the pregnancy test is positive.
              • If there are no HCG to stick onto the stick, the urine (and the monoclonal antibodies and the dye) will pass without colouring the strip. This means that it is negative
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