• Created by: Rachel
  • Created on: 09-06-13 10:38
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  • Minority Rights
    • extension of liberal concept of individual HR to society
      • grew out of PLURALISM
      • As individuals possess civil rights that cant be legislated away by an elected majroity
        • its seen that minority groups should have rights that cannot be denied by the majority sections of society
          • this is because they are of equal value to everyone else
        • suffered discrimination (mainly racial) for a long time
          • Due to this their position in society has been that of culturally dispossessed and impoverished force of manual labourers
            • usually lacked education, economic strength & political power
      • The promotion of EQUAL RIGHTS has taken the form of redressing the balance & investing minorities communities with the level of rights & opportunities expected by the rest of the population
    • Developed after the success of the US Civil Rights Movement
      • Became obvious that the Civil Rights Act & Voting Rights act wouldn't deal with the problems of poverty faced by Black Americans
        • SOLUTION (found by black pressure groups) - was AFFIRMATIVE ACTION
          • this demanded that public policy make sure that they assist the developments of communities that had suffered discrimination
            • justified as without such action these communities couldn't assume their rightful place on an equal level with the rest of society
          • strategy moved to UK in 1970's - 'positive discrimination'
            • EG: NHS
    • Applies to ethnic groups living in clearly defined territories
      • Usually these MR were given to earlier residents of states that were created by European settler colonies
        • EG: USA (Native Americans), Australia (Aborigines)
      • Rights given vareid between countries but all are contraversial
      • Arise from a formal recognition that the colonial settlement was an act of aggression - so probably a war crime under international law
        • Colonial settlements harmed the original communities and because of this they owe them compensation and granting of political authority
          • These moves have been criticised for undermining the legitimacy of the states and their traditions and national identity
    • Criticism
      • LIBERALS
        • Say they impose a collectivist view of the world on society
          • Individuals in these communities are forced into an identity that may have been chose for them by self appointed community leaders
        • There are serious disagreements over what constitutes a number of identities
          • and that public bodies may make  decisions about how to recongise what define a community on the grounds of short term pragmatism than principle
          • Worst case: descend into opportunism
            • EG: deferring to community leaders who are thought to be capable of delivering the most block votes
        • leads to infringement  of FREEDOM OF SPEECH
          • Shlman Rusdies book was accused of being insulting to Islam
          • all liberties are under;inned by FOS
          • Once this freedom is infringes all other liberties are at risk because there is no end to the qualifications to liberty tht can be made
          • Enlightenment principle of rational enquirty demands that nothing is exempt from the most searching scrutiny and criticism
            • To allow one religion to claim exemption fro scrutiny - undermines principles of liberal society that have existed since Enlightenment
      • Feminist campaigners against forced marriage and domestic violence frequently accuse public bodies of deferring to community cultural values for fear of being accused of racism and discriminatory practices
        • allocation of public funds to minority community organisations
        • Allocation of resources (social housing to recent immigrants)
      • Leads to UNDERQUALIFIED PEOPLE being APPOINTEDto JOBS which resulting ion a lowering of the standards of public service


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