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  • Milgram and obdience
    • Obedience
      • Obedience means to obey a direct order from an authority figure
    • Milgrams 1963 study
      • Aim  to investigate how far people will go obeying an authority figure
      • Procedure
        • 1) Laboratory Experiment. 40 males between the ages of 20-50 were recruited via a newspaper advert (self-selected sample) They were told they were taking part in a teaching and learning experiment.
        • 2)  All the participants were allocated the role of teacher.  The learner was a confederate ‘Mr Wallace’.The experimenter was dressed in a grey lab coat. The learner was strapped into an ‘electric chair’ in the next room.  The teacher was given a sample shock, to show what it felt like.
        • 3) Every time the learner made an error the teacher had to give progressively more intense electric shocks 14 volts -450volts.If the learner hesitated, he was given verbal prods by the experimenter, such as “You have no other choice, you must go on.” The experiment finished when the participant refused to go on.
      • Findings: Despite the protests of the learner, all participants went to 300 volts (intense shock). 65% went to 450 volts (***)
      • Conclusion: Most people will obey an authority figure without question. Socialisation – We are taught from an early age to do as we are told. Agentic State – People abdicate responsibility by blaming the person who gave the order.  
      • + Good controls avoid bias and mean that the situation was the same for all, so cause and effect conclusions could be drawn.            + The well controlled procedures mean that the study is replicable an can be tested for reliability
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