AS OCR Psychology > Core studies > Social Approach > Milgram

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  • Milgram
    • Context
      • Obedience is following a direct order.
      • Destructive obedience is following an order to harm someone
      • Milgram was deeply affected by the extent to which people displayed distracting obedience in Holocaust
      • Dispositional hypothesis
        • Germanic culture led to high levels of conformity and mass genocide
      • Situational hypothesis
        • Behaviour defined by environment
    • Pilot Survey
      • 3% (of 14) Psychology students said participants would obey to full 450v
    • Method
      • Controlled observation
        • Not an experiment as Milgram said - there's no control condition; only one task.
      • Participants
        • Self selecting
          • News paper ad - study on memory and learning at Yale Uni
          • 40 Males  aged 20 - 50
            • New Haven district
          • Offered $4.50  for turning up - not conditional on completion
        • Range of occupations
          • 37.5% Manual Labourers
          • 40% White collar
          • 22.5% Professionals
          • More representative of general population
      • Aim
        • Aim: To investigate what level of destructive obedience would be shown when participants were told to administer electric shocks to another person
      • Naive participant arrived at Yale University
        • Met 47 year old Irish American accountant. Selected for mild mannered and likable nature
          • Naive participant + confederate told there was teacher/learner role.
            • Drew slips of paper from hat (equal chance)
              • Naive participant always teacher
              • Shown room divided by wall
                • Learner strapped to chair with electrodes
                  • Shown electric shock generator - 30 switches. 15 - 450v
                    • Told  extremely painful, but 'no permanent damage'
                      • Given 45v shock to demonstrate
                        • Administered by 31 year old Biology teacher. Stern and emotionless.


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