MILGRAM

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  • MILGRAM
    • aim
      • testing obedience by investigating how far an individual will go in obeying an authority figure
        • even when the command breaches the moral code
    • participants
      • 40 male participants aged 20-50
        • only males
      • self selecting sample from newspaper
        • new haven area - $4.50 rewards
        • share similar traits e.g. extroverted
        • ethnocentric
    • method/design
      • controlled observation as no independant variable
      • laboratory experiment at Yale University
        • high control of extraneous variables
        • reliable and replicable
        • lacked mundane realism
    • procedure
      • role of teacher through fixed lottery
      • volts ranging 15-450
      • 300 volts learner pounded on the wall and did not reply
    • results
      • 100% reached 300 volts
      • 26/40 65% reached 450
      • 26 obedient and 14 disobedient
    • conclusions
      • inhumane acts can be done by ordinary people
      • people will obey those whom they consider legitimate authority figures even if asked to go against morals
      • individual differenced e.g. personality influence extent of obedience
    • data
      • both qualitative and quantitative
        • easy to analyse
        • easy to compare
    • ethics
      • no protection from harm
        • health at risk 3 peoples had seziures
      • didn't obtain consent
      • payments made people feel obliged to continue
      • verbal prods removed right to withdraw
    • validity
      • low ecological validity
        • un-representative behaviour
      • respected situation as at Yale
      • relates to background studies
    • reliability
      • lab format grants high reliability
      • easy to replicate
      • consistent results
    • key themes
      • determinism and free will
        • 65% situation chnaged behaviour
      • individual and situational
        • 65% determined by situation
      • social psychology
        • shows the extent people's behaviour can be influenced by others
      • obedience
        • high levles to authority

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