Microscopy and cell structure

  • Created by: ajellis
  • Created on: 01-01-19 20:36
View mindmap
  • Microscopy and cell structures
    • Microscopes
      • Transmission electron microscope (TEM)
        • Radiation source - Electrons
          • Magnification - x500,000
        • Specimen - Dead
          • Image - Black and white 2D
      • Scanning electron microscope (SEM)
        • Radiation source - Electrons
          • Magnification - x200,000
        • Specimen - Dead
          • Image - Black and white. False colour 3D
      • Laser scanning microscope
        • Radiation source - Laser
          • Magnification - x2,000
        • Resolution - 0.5nm
        • Stain - Fluorescence
      • Light microscope
        • Radiation source - light
          • Magnification x 1,000 - x2,000
      • Calibrating the graticule
      • Magnification - Increase in size defined by image size/ actual size
        • Resolution - The ability to distinguish two separate points that are close together.
    • Cell structures
      • Nucleus - Made up of nucleolus and nuclear envelope. Contains chromosomes and DNA,
      • Nucleolus - More denser area, RNA and ribosomes areproduced in the Nucleolus.
      • Nuclear envelope - Small pores too small for DNA to fit through. Lets RNA in and out of nucleus.
      • Rough endoplasmic recticulum (RER)- Ribsomes on outside have cisternae. Higher density around nucleus and golgi. Assembles, transports and sorts proteins
      • Smooth endoplasmic recticulum (SER) - Has cisternae. Assembles steroids and lipids. Stores lipids. Lipid metabolism.
      • Golgi apparatus - Made up of cisternae. Package, modifying and transporting lipids into vesicles,
      • Ribosomes - Made up of Ribosomal RNA. Protein synthesis.
      • Mitochondria - Inner membrane folded into cistae. Self replicating. Abundant in cells where there is lots of metabolic activity. 2-5 micrometers. Site of ATP production
      • Lysosomes - Vesicles that contain Hydrolytic enzyme (suicide bag). Controls cell death.
      • Plasma membrane - Made of phospholipids and cholesterol, proteins and carbohydrates. Controls what goes in and out of the cell
      • Chloroplasts - make the plant green. Captures sunlight energy and converts to ATP. Carries out chemical reactions.
      • Centrioles - Shape of a hollow cylinder made out of microtubules. Forms cillia and flagella, Forms spindle that pulls apart chromosomes
  • Radiation source - light
    • Magnification x 1,000 - x2,000
  • Resolution - 200nm
    • Stain - Iodine or Methylene blue
    • Light microscope
    • Specimen - Alive or dead
      • Image - Coloured
    • Resolution - 0.2nm-0.4nm
      • Stain - Heavy metals
      • Scanning electron microscope (SEM)
        • Radiation source - Electrons
          • Magnification - x200,000
        • Specimen - Dead
          • Image - Black and white. False colour 3D
    • Resolution - 0.2nm
      • Stain - Heavy metals
      • Transmission electron microscope (TEM)
        • Radiation source - Electrons
          • Magnification - x500,000
        • Specimen - Dead
          • Image - Black and white 2D
    • Specimen - Alive or dead
      • Image - Coloured
      • Laser scanning microscope
        • Radiation source - Laser
          • Magnification - x2,000
        • Resolution - 0.5nm
        • Stain - Fluorescence
    • 1.Place stage micrometer on stage.
      • 2.Line up divisions on graticule with those of the micrometers
        • 3.Work out length of one eyepiece unit
    • Calibrating graticule = Graticule (micrometer) / eyepiece unit (graticule)= 1EPU
      • 4. Repeat for each objective lens
    • Magnification can only be increased if resolution has not been met

    Comments

    No comments have yet been made

    Similar Biology resources:

    See all Biology resources »See all Cellular processes and structure resources »