Cell structure and Microscopy


Eukaryotic cell structure

Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Structure 

  • Plasma Membrane - surrounds the cell/ partially permeable
  • Nucleus - The nucleus is a membrane bound structure that contains the cell's hereditary information and controls the cell's growth and reproduction
  • Nucleolus - The round granular structure within the nucleus of a cell, and composed of protein and RNA
  • Nuclear Envolope - The two layered membrane that encases the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, which separates the nucleus from other cell organelles
  • Nuclear Pores - allows movent of substances out/ into the nucleus
  • Golgi Apparatas - checks, modifys and packages proteins into vesicles
  • RER - site of protein sysnthesis
  • Mitochondria - site of areobic respiration
  • SER - production of lipids and steroids
  • Lysosomes - contain digestive enzymes
  • Vesicles - proteins and stubstances are contained in a membrane
  • Centrolies - only in animal cells - involved in cellular division
  • Cytoskeleton - intracelluar movemnt/ network to move around cells
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The Cytoskeleton

The cytoskeleton is responsible for cell shape, motility (movement) of the cell as a whole, and motility of organelles within a cell. There are three types of filaments in the cytoplasm of most vertebrate cells: microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments.

filament systems are able to lengthen or shorten very rapidly. This dynamic nature of the cytoskeleton is necessary for cells to be able to change shape, complete cell division, or migrate.

The microfilament system is a network of filaments 6 nanometers (nm) in diameter that are important for anchoring plasma membrane proteins, for producing cell movement, and for cell division. The base filament is composed of a protein called actin.

Microtubules are the largest of the cytoskeletal filaments with a diameter of 25 nm. There are many parallels between the microfilament cytoskeletal system and the microtubule system. Like microfilaments, microtubules are produced by the self-assembly of a subunit, which in the case of microtubules is a heterodimer composed of one alpha tubulin and one beta tubulin bound together

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Protein Production

  • Protiens are synthesised on the ribosome bound to endoplasmic Reticulium
  • pass into the cristernae and are packaged into transport vesicles
  • vesicles move towards the plasma membrane
  • fuse with the membrane
  • release contents via exocytosis
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Plant cell

Image result for plant cell (http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/plants/cell/anatomy.GIF)

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Plant Cell organelles

  • Cellulose cell wall - ridgid cell wall - offers structre and stability aswell as extra barrier
  • vacuoles - tornoplast lined sacs - help in cell tirgidity
  • chloroplasts - site of photosynthesis
  • Image result for chloroplast structure (http://images.tutorvista.com/cms/images/123/structure-of-chloroplast11.PNG)
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Prokaryotic Cells

Image result for prokaryotic cell (http://0.tqn.com/d/biology/1/0/H/m/bacteria_cell_drawing.jpg)

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Microscopy Equation

Image result for microscopy biology equation

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Types of Microscope

Light                                           Transmission Electron                              Scanning Electron

laser Scanning

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Staining in Microscopy

For light Microscopes:

For Electron Microscopes:

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