Matter and Radiation - Unit 1 AQA Physics

Mindmap covering Chapter 1 - Matter and Radiation, from Nelson Thornes AQA AS Physics

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  • Matter and Radiation
    • Inside the atom
      • proton - +1.6x10^-19C... 1.67x10^-27kg
      • electron -1.6x10^-19C... 9.11x10^-31kg
      • neutron - 0C... 1.67x10^-27kg
      • Isotopes = atoms with the same number of protons and different numbers of neutrons
      • m/z ratio = specific charge
        • Don't forget to multiply the mass and charge by the number of particles involved (atomic number)
    • Stable and unstable nuclei
      • Strong nuclear force - keeps protons and neutrons together
        • attractive until 0.5fm, repulsive from here
      • Alpha Decay
      • Beta Decay
    • Photons
      • electromagnetic waves consist of an electric wave and a magnetic wave which travel together and vibrate...
        • right angles to each other and to the direction in which they are travelling
        • phase with each other
      • packet of electromagnetic waves
      • E = hf
      • Power of the beam = nhf
        • n = number of photons in the beam passing a fixed point each second
        • f = frequency of photons
        • h = plank's constant
      • = c/f
    • Particles and antiparticles
      • particle and antiparticle...
        • meet... annihilation
          • a particle and corresponding antiparticle meet and their mass is converted into radiation energy
        • rest mass converted to photons
        • have exactly the same rest mass
        • have exactly opposite charges
      • Positron emission = positron changes to neutron in anstable nucleus with too many protons
      • pair production - photon with sufficient energy changes to a particle-antiparticle pair, which then separate from each other
        • minimum energy of photon needed = 2E..=hf
      • 1eV = the energy transferred when an electron is moved through a potential difference of 1V
      • Cloud chamber - discovery of the positron
    • how particles interact
      • EM force - momentum is conserved
        • due to the exchange of virtual photons (Feynman)
      • Weak nuclear force
        • causes a neutron to change to a proton, or a proton to change to a neutron
        • W bosons
          • have a non-zero rest mass
          • have a range of no more than about 0.001fm
          • are positively charged or negatively charged
      • Beta decay
        • W- decays to a B- and an antineutrino
        • W+ decays to a B+ and a neutrino
      • Electron capture
        • proton in a proton rich nucleus turns into a neutron as a result of interacting through the weak interaction
        • W+ changes the electron to a neutrino
        • the same can happen when a proton and an electron collide at very high speed
        • for an electron with sufficient energy, the overall change could occur as a W- exchange from the electron to the proton



where it says atractive until 0.5fm, its repulsive below 0.5fm, attractive between 0.5 and 3 fm and attraction drops off rapidly after 3fm, just to let you know

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