- loftus & palmer evaluating the study
- ecological validity- witnessing a car crash in real life would be very different to how it was in the study and could easily have affected memory of the event.
- Validity- subjects were aware they were in the study and could have been prone to demand characteristics. It did show however that participants recalled the events of the car crashes were less accurate when questioned in a leading way
- Reliability- participants consistently estimated higher speeds for the more serious sounding impact verbs. Also, the same standardized frame sentences were used with all participants and the same film clips of crashes were used
- Ethics- may have caused anxiety and distress if a participant had recently been involved in a crash, or knew someone who had
- Qualitative- participants were asked to give an account of the car crashes in there own words first
- Quantitative- estimates of vehicle speed on collisions impact in mph. Also answering 'yes' or 'no' to having seen broken glass.