LIBERALISM 3

  • Created by: Q_
  • Created on: 09-06-19 16:13
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  • Tensions within Liberalism
    • HUMAN NATURE
      • ALL LIBERALS BELIEVE THAT INDIVIDUALS ARE GENERALLY RATIONAL, INTELLIGENT AND ARE KEEN TO PRIORITISE THEIR INDIVIDUAL HAPPINESS AND FULFILMENT.
        • EARLY CLASSICAL LIBERALS LIKE LOCKE, AND NEO-LIBERALS LIKE HAYEK, BELIEVE THAT INDIVIDUALS ARE INNATELY LESSED WITH SUCH QUALITIES - WHEREAS MODERN LIBERALS LIKE RAWLS TEND TO THINK THAT SUCH QUALITIES ARE POTENTIAL FEATURES OF HUMAN NATURES - TO BE DEVELOPED BY ENLIGHTENED BY LIBERAL AUTHORITIES.
          • THIS IS WHY MODERN LIBERALS ENDORSE MILL'S CONCEPT OF INDIVIDUALITY - ONE THAT REFERS TO WHAT INDIVIDUALS COULD BECOME, ONCE 'ENABLED' TO FULFIL THEIR POTENTIAL.
    • SOCIETY
      • CLASSICAL LIBERALS BELIEVE THAT HUMAN SOCIETY PREDATES THE STATE, WHILE ALL LIBERALS SEE SOCIETY AS A COLLECTION OF DIVERSE AND POTENTIALLY AUTONOMOUS INDIVIDUALS, SEEKING SELF-DETERMINATION, SELF-FULFILMENT AND SELF-REALISATION.
      • MODERN LIBERALS, LIKE RAWLS, BELIEVE THAT INDUSTRIALISED AND URBAN SOCIETIES ARE THOSE WHERE INDIVIDUALS ARE LESS AUTONOMOUS AND REQUIRE STATE SUPPORT TO BE FREE (POSITIVE LIBERTY).
      • NEO-LIBERALSSEE SOCIETY AS ONE WHERE INDIVIDUALS HAVE BEEN SPOILED BY POSITIVE LIBERTY AND NOW THE 'DEPENDENCY CULTURE'NEEDS TO BE CORRECTED BY A REDUCTION OF THE STATE (Margaret Thatcher).
    • THE STATE
      • ALL LIBERALS BELIEVE THAT THE STATE SHOULD FUNCTION ACCORDING TO PREARRANGED RULES AND PROCEDURES, WITH POWER FRAGMENTED AND AUTHORITY SUBJECT TO THE CONSENT OF THE GOVERNED.
        • CLASSICAL LIBERALS LIKE MILL, IN ACCORDANCE WITH 'NEGATIVE' LIBERTY, BELIEVE THAT STATE INTERVENTION SHOULD BE MINIMAL AND INDIVIDUALS LEFT UNCHECKED.
          • MODERN LIBERALS BELIEVE STATE INTERVENTION SHOULD BE MORE EXTENSIVE TO 'ENABLE' INDIVIDUALS TO REACH THEIR POTENTIAL.
            • MODERN LIBERALS ARE SATISFIED THAT REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY ENHANCES CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT, WHEREAS EARLY CLASSICAL LIBERALS SAW DEMOCRACY AS A THREAT TO PROPERTY RIGHTS.
    • THE ECONOMY
      • FOLLOWING LOCKE'S ASSERTION THAT PROPERTY IS A 'NATURALRIGHT', ALL LIBERALS BELIEVE THAT THE ECONOMY SHOULD BE BASED ON PROVATE PROPERTY AND PRIVATE ENTERPRISE.
        • MODERN LIBERALSHAVE MORE SYMPATHY FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF KEYNESIAN CAPITALISM (REGULAR STATE MANAGEMENT ENSURES FULL  EMPLOYMENT).
          • MODERN LIBERALS BELIEF IN 'MANAGED' CAPITALISM ALSO EXPLAINS ITS SUPPORT FOR SUPRANATIONAL ORGANISATIONS LIKE THE EU, WHICH MANY NEO-LIBERALS SEE AS AN OBSTACLE TO GLOBAL FREE TRADE.

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