Levels of Processing AO1 and AO2

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    • AO1
      • By Craik and Lcokhart in 1970
      • concentrates on the LTM and semantic processing
      • they suggest the depth or level of proceszsing determines its place in the LTM
      • the greater we think about imformation, the longer it will be remembered
      • processed at 3 levels
        • Structural
          • Shallow-example-whether or not a word is in capital letters
            • remembered the least
        • Phonetic
          • Deep-example-whether a word sounds like another word
        • Semantic
          • Deepest-example-whether a word fits into a sentence or category
            • remembered the most
      • semantic can be processed at different depths of analysis, some more complex than others: this is called ELABORATE SEMANTIC PROCESSING
      • It focused on INFORMATION PROCESSING
    • AO2
      • NEGATIVE
        • not easy to study as it is difficult to operationalise due to it being highly individual
        • REBER ET AL 1994
          • found that emotional content affects recall therefore it is not the full exaplanation as it doesn't explain why emotionally tied information is remembered for longer and more vividly
        • RAMPONI ET AL found recall of one word can cause the recall of another regardless of processing levels
      • POSITIVE
        • CRAIK AND TULVING 1975 and RAMPONI ET AL 2004
          • found that semantic processing led to a better recall
        • brain scanning
          • found more brain activity during semantic processing which means a deeper processing
        • APPLICATION- revision-> those who read around the subject, therefore process the information deeper, get better results than those who don't


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