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  • Legislation
    • If bills are in the manifesto, they will usually be passed as the government has the mandate
      • Government bills are most likely to be passed as they fulfil commitments made in the popular manifesto, however coalition governments blur this
    • Private member bills are introduced by MPs. They are rarely passed without government support
      • Offer legislation on matters of conscience eg: Abortion Act (1967)
    • Impact of the Lords:
      • Process is repeated in the Lords
        • Royal Assent
      • The House of Lords scrutinises legislation in detail, including by experts in the field (eg: Lord Winston - fertility). The House can suggest amendments or pass the bill
        • The House of Lords is appointed, not elected. They cannot oppose government bills included in the manifesto (Salisbury Doctirne)
        • As the elected chamber, the Commons can push a bill through the Lords using the Parliament Acts (1911 and 49)
          • Eg: War Crimes Act (1991), European Parliamentary Elections Act (1999), Sexual Offences (Amandment) Act (2000) and Hunting Act (2004)
    • Private bills usually grant exceptions from existing law, such as assisted suicide
    • Legislative process:
      • First reading is where the bill is introduced and the date for the second reading is set
        • Second reading is where the principles of the bill are outlined. This is followed by some debate
          • Committee stage is where a standing committee scrutinises the bill, amending if necessary
            • Third reading is where no more changes can be made. The bill is either passed or rejected
              • Process is repeated in the Lords
                • Royal Assent


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