Language & Gender

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  • Language & Gender
    • Linguists
      • Peter Trudgill
        • women tend to use standard grammar and pronunciation more than men do - men seek covert prestige whilst women seek overt
      • Julia Stanley
        • more words for men and many of the words for women have sexual overtones - there are 220 words for a sexually promiscuous female and only 20 for a male
      • Herriman
        • words for physical attractiveness collocated most frequently with 'woman' whereas height, abilities or personality collocated most with man
      • Jennifer Coats
        • men talk about impersonal topics and will hold the floor and will rarely feature overlapping. They will linguistically spar eachother through banter which is playful conflict to create solidarity
      • Lakoff
        • women's language includes hedging, super polite forms, italics, tag questions, avoidance of coarse language or expletives, apologies, overuse of qualifiers
      • Zimmerman and West
        • men interrupt women often to assert dominance in mixed sex conversation as a form of constraints on womens' contributions
      • Deborah Tanner
        • women want support, intimacy, proposals, understanding, feelings and compromise whereas men want status, independence, advice, action, conflict, information and orders
      • Jeperson
        • women's vocabulary is less extensive than men's
      • Jannet Holmes
        • words that were originally affectionate or neutral have undergone semantic deterioration and have gained negative connotations - metaphors for women are either based on food or animals
    • Key Terms
      • Pejoration
        • a shift in semantic meaning that leads to a less favourable connotation over time
      • Socialisation
        • conditioning people as they grow up to perform and conform to certain social roles and behaviours
      • Marked Form
        • that which stands out as different from the norm (lady doctor, male nurse)
      • folk linguistics
        • attitudes and assumptions about language that have no real evidence to support them (women talk more)
      • Lexical Asymmetry
        • words that are unequal in their associations or connotations
      • false generic
        • the masculine pronoun 'he' is used generically to refer to both males and females when it is not gender neutral

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