Language Change - A02

Language change over time - main AO2 points 

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  • Language Change - A02
    • Descriptivists
      • David Crystal
        • Tide Metaphor
        • Linguists of the internet
      • Sapir Whorf
        • Linguistic determinism
      • Jean Aitchison
        • Language change myths
      • Dennis Freeborn
        • Incorrectness View (all accents are incorrect compared to standard English/RP)
        • Ugliness view (some accents don't sounds nice - linked to stereotypes and negative social connotations)
          • *FREEBORN DISAGREES WITH ALL OF THESE* (Accents gain popularity from fashion and convention. E.g. RP became standard as it had prestige, NOT because it was correct)
        • Impreciseness view (some accents are lazy)
    • Prescriptivists
      • Samuel Johnson
      • Noah Webster
      • Lynne Truss
      • John Humphreys
    • Processes of semantic change
      • Broadening
      • Narrowing
      • Amelioration
      • Pejoration
      • Metaphor
      • Semantic shift
      • Weakening
    • Terms to describe new words
      • Blending (Process of combining elements)
      • Borrowing
      • Compound (2 words put together)
      • Portmanteau (The word created by the blend)
      • Neologism (new word)
      • Neolexia (New wordS)
      • Coining (creation of new word)
      • Derivation (creating new word from archaic root e.g. neurons)
      • Affixation (adding prefixes of suffixes) e.g. homophobia/ ghettoisation
    • Other theorists
      • Howard Giles
        • Matched Guise
        • Accomm-odation Theory
      • Deborah Cameron
        • Believed women's voices are judged differently from men's. E.g. women with strong cockney accents are deemed as sexually available. >She predicts that in the future, men's talk will become more feminized
      • Bray Kachru
        • Globalization of English
      • Brown + Levinson
        • Face
    • Process of two languages forming a new language
      • Two languages
        • Pidgin
          • Lingua Franca (taught to next generation)
            • Creole (Grammatical rules, lexis widens)
              • Diffusion
                • Language OR Anti-Language
    • Amalgamation Primary
      • Creoles often develop when speakers of the pidgin can no longer speak the source language
    • Canole + Dyke - The Affordances and Constraints of technology
      • *Accesibility *Speed of change *Diversity *Communication                  *Collaboration*Reflection *Multi-modal *Surveillance *Immediacy
    • Kachru's diagram of Globalisation
      • Inner circle = native speakers Out circle = English as a 2nd language Expanding circle = All those who learn and use English with varying degrees of experience

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