Language and Gender Theorists

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  • Language and Gender
    • Women's Language
      • Otto Jeperson (1922)
        • males language normal, women's language abnormal
        • danager of language becoming insipid if use women's expressions
        • women's language not as effective because of indirectness
      • Dale Spender (1980) man made language
        • qualifiers (perhaps + maybe) & intensifiers (so + such)
          • evidence of uncertainty for women
          • evidence of certainty for men
      • Mira Komarovsky (1962)
        • 58 working class American couples
        • women-talked about family & personal matters
        • men-money, business, sport, work & politics
      • Robin Lakoff (1975)
        • women's words, grammar, intonation & high levels of intonation
        • deficit model- men & women not only different & men dominate, but differences exist because of inferior femal attributes
      • Wilson (1553)
        • decreed that it was more natural for the man to come before the woman
      • Raewyn Connell (1987) Hegemonic masculinity
        • behaviours & language associated with idealised male groups that is seen as having the most power & status
      • Holmes (1994) metaphors
        • use of metaphors for women are persuasive
        • metaphors of animals are strongly associated  with some women
        • metonymy refernces to things by something closely related
      • Thimm (2003)
        • women mimic the language of men
      • Julia Stanley (1977) promiscuous words
        • more for women, many perjorated
      • Anne Bodine (1975)
        • androcentricism, false generic
      • Litosseleti (2006)
        • women in male roles change/adapt language to men's language
    • Gender in Conversation
      • Cameron & Coates  (1988)
        • competitive & cooperative langauge
        • Hedges- help statements become more negotiable & retractable
      • Jennifer Coates (1996)
        • women's work words
          • men prefer topics which allow each participant a turn of being the expert
          • women prefer topics that are more personal
        • men hedge less
        • women make well places minimal responses
        • men make responses too late, lack of interest, women falling silent
      • Deborah Tannen (1992)
        • men assume role of information giver
        • men use more imperatives, women use cloaked imperatives
        • women's overlaps & interruptions are supportive
        • difference model
          • women = affiliation & strength of group
          • status VS support
      • Jenny Cheshire (1980)
        • girls are more grammatically correct
      • Deborah Cameron (2007) verbal hygiene
        • language affected by social situations regardless of gender
        • person unfamiliar or uncomfortable language might be weak as lack of experience
      • Keith & Shuttleworth (2000)
        • women = talk more & too much, more polite, complain & nag, more questions, supportive & cooperative
        • men = swear more, talk about sport, see women + machines as the same, insultive, competitive, dominate, authorative, commands & interrupt
    • Powerless Language
      • O'Barr & Atkins (1980)
        • women's language not used by all women
        • more women then men use powerless language
        • speakers social status & previous experience determined what features of PL were used
        • renamed womens language powerless language
      • Candaice West (1984)
        • doctor patient conversations
        • doctor interrupts patient unless doctor-woman & patient- white man then patient interrupts
      • Nicola Woods (1989)
        • recorded conversations between colleges of different occupational status
        • even when women were of higher status, men still dominated
    • Phonology
      • Ruth Brend (1975)
        • men use 3 levels of intonation, women use 4, 4th being higher
      • Luchsinger & Arnold (1965)
        • voices of some deaf men never break as never heard the gender difference in pitch
      • Wolk, Abdelli-Beruh & Slaven (2012) vocal fry
        • coined term
        • lower pitch of voca fry is attempt to be taken more seriously in work place & establish professional identity
      • Paul Warren (2015) uptalk
        • uptalk has positive range of social & semantic functions
      • Mattingly (1969)
        • we modify our voices to fit in with our genders
      • University of California
        • uptalk also known as valley girl speak or SoCal
        • women use uptalk to hold conversational floor, rising intonation suggest not finished
        • women use 'floor holding' rise 60% of time, men use it 28% of time
      • Denise O'Donoghice (1997)
        • hears anxiety in women's voice when talking to strong men
        • says women are still talked over by men
      • Peter Trudgill (1970)
        • 'ng' prestigious variable
          • women of each class use it more than men of same class
          • women over-report, men under-report
    • Tag Questions
      • Janet Holmes (1984)
        • Modal tags - seek information “isn’t it”, speaker orientate, 61% used by men
        • Affective tags, show concern, “wasn’t it”
        • Facilitating tags, solidarity, “don’t you” addressee orientated, 75% used by women
        • Women use more tags
      • Pamela Fishman (1980)
        • 52 hours of conversation between young couples
        • Women use 3x as many tag Q but not bc of uncertainty but for conversational work
      • Cameron & Coates (1988)
        • Tag Q monitor when in agreement & repect face needs
      • Dubois & Crouch (1975)
        • Found that men use more tag questions
      • Jennifer Coates (1996)
        • Men use tag Q to seek information
    • Other Theories
      • Cherish Krammer (1974)
        • Cartoons in New Yorker, male characters swore more
      • Paul Baker (2006)
        • Gender collocations illustrate how two words show society views on gender
      • Judith Baxter  (2014) double voicing
        • Women more aware that people may have other agendas
          • anticipating & mitigating
      • Virginia Woolf  (1972)
        • More women keeping name when marry
      • Jane Sutherland (2004) discourse
        • Equal opportunity discourse & political correctness discourse
      • Roland Barthes semiotics
        • Images are culturally specific, denotations & connotations
      • Judith Butler (2004) undoing gender
        • Language socially contrusctd gender expectations e.g pronounce you man & wife
      • Zimmerman & West (1975) interruptions, overlaps & silences
        • Single-sex convo 0.35 interruptions, mixed-sex convo 4.36 interruptions
        • 98% interruptions + 100% overlaps men
        • More silences in mixed-sex conversation
      • Muriel Schulz  (1975)
        • Living in a patriarchal society

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