Language & Gender

View mindmap
  • Language & Gender
    • Difference between sex & gender
      • sex- biological differences
      • gender- behavioural characteristics as a result of social and cultural influences
      • Masculine & feminine- sex
    • Reasons for difference between male and female language use
      • Women are more status-concious
        • women make more effort to conform to Standard usage in an effort to demonstrate their status and respectability
      • Societies expectations of women
        • society expects 'better' behaviour from women than men
        • women expected to behave in a 'ladylike' way
          • must speak in an appropriate manner
      • Subordinate role of women
        • when speaking to men women must use polite, standard forms
        • language is less direct and assertive
      • Overt & covert prestige
        • men associate non-standard forms with masculinity and toughness
        • Men were proud of their use of non-standard felt covert prestige
    • Marked Expressions
      • lexical terms to describe females are marked
      • shows they are different from the norm
      • unmarked item is the norm- usually the male form
      • e.g. the lady bus driver
    • Generic terms
      • masculine pronouns used when the gender is unspecified
      • represents a male-centred world
      • he/she is more widely used now than just 'he'
    • Key terminology
      • Adjacency Pairs
        • two utterances by different speakers that link an idea together
      • Non-fluency features
        • noises and sounds which express engagements with a topic
      • Topic shift
        • an utterance which changes the topic of the conversation
      • Back channeling
        • non-fluency feature used by a listener to show disagreement or suprise
      • Hedges & Fillers
        • fragments of language, used by women 'sort of'
      • Apologetic requests
        • usually used by women, e.g. "i'm sorry but would you mind moving?'
      • Tag questions
        • questions added to the end of a comment/statement
      • Indirect requests
        • when people aim to be polite and do not say exactly what they mean
      • Intensifier
        • words that amplify statements, can be positive or negative
      • Overlaps
        • when people cut into a conversation with no intention of dominance
      • Diminutive terms
        • words such as 'sweetheart' and 'darling'
      • Marked terms
        • words that reveal a persons gender, e.g. policeman
      • Unmarked terms
        • words that do not reveal a person's gender e.g police officer
    • Features of male conversation
      • use imperatives
      • use taboo language and more slang and colloquial lexis
      • use of covert prestige
      • insult eachother to show affectionate solidarity
      • aggressive and purposeful language
      • silences used to communicate
      • compete for and receive more attention
      • more inclined to brag
      • avoid eye contact
      • Topic shift frequently
      • overlaps are scarce
      • Only appologise if they have to
      • compliment women but tend to rinforce subordinate status
    • Features of female conversation
      • use more evaluative lexis, communicating feelings and emotions
      • use more politeness markers than men
      • initiate exchanges more than men
      • more minimal responses
      • use more declaratives
      • use a rising intonation
      • often have incomplete sentances
      • use more diminutives and euphemisms
      • use more first person pronouns
      • tend to use more overlaps
      • aim to establish a rapport
      • lack a sense of humour
      • Discuss ont topic for long periods of time
    • Stereotypes of women
      • The mother
        • only females capable of looking after children
      • The love interest
        • Only shown as an object to the male
      • Damsel in distress
        • women that need to be saved/ cared for by a male
      • Black women
        • seen as strong and independent
    • Stereotypes of men
      • The silent rock
        • indifferent and emotionless
          • takes up everything indpendantly to gain respect
      • The big shot
        • defined by success and arrogance
      • The joker
        • will be rash and funny to gain social acceptance and recognition
      • The jock
        • doesn't show emotion other than aggression and lust
        • does not show any weaknesses

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar English Language resources:

See all English Language resources »See all Language and gender resources »