Labour and Tory Governments 1964-79

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  • Created on: 30-05-19 22:52
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  • Labour and Tory Governments 1964-79
    • Labour 1964-70 (Wilson)
      • 1964 Election (4 Seat Majority)
        • Conservative Decline
          • Tories in 1951-64 had no answer for rising unemployment, inflation, and divisions in wealth
          • Douglas-Home and the party itself seemed out of touch
          • Conservative Scandals
            • Profumo Affair
              • Christine Keeler (links to the Russian embassy through prostitution) had an affair with John Profumo
            • Vassall Affair
              • Vassall spied for the Soviet Union
              • Rumoured cover up within the Admiralty
            • Philby Case
              • Senior official at the Foreign Office had been passing info to the USSR and recruiting spies
            • Argyll Affair
              • Government ministers affairs with the wife of the Duke of Argyll
          • Night of the Long Knives
        • Wilson's Appeal
          • Classless leader, man of the people
            • Was able to gloss over the still present divisions in the Labour party
            • Modern, dynamic, and progressive
        • Younger society, looking to modernize
          • Wilson promised to 'harness science to our economic planning'
          • Labour promised to prosper in this scientific revolution
        • Revival of the Liberal Party
          • Middle Class voters wanting to protest against the Tories would turn to the Liberals
      • Successes
        • Social Reforms
          • Roy Jenkins
            • Race Relations (1965)
              • Tightened rules on immigration due to its unpopularity in Labour voters
                • Many new arrivals from the Commonwealth
              • Public discrimination made illegal
            • Voting Age lowered to 18 (1969)
            • Equal Pay law (1970)
            • Abortion legalised and contraception more available (1967)
            • Private homosexual acts legalised (1967)
          • Reduced division in social class
        • Education
          • 1963 Robbins Report on Higher Education
            • Greater number of universities
            • Open University for all ages
          • Comprehensive system expanded
        • Economic Policy
          • BOPD improving by 1969
          • Value of sterling maintained
          • Road transport and industrial development in Wales and the North
      • Failures
        • The Economy
          • Labour opted for unpopular spending cuts and higher taxes
          • Devaluation of the pound in 1967
            • Seamen strikes damaged exports, high inflation, and BOPD led to devaluation
            • Wilson initially ruled out devaluation as it would: reduce working class savings, associate labour with the 'easy way out', and upset the Americans
              • Labour opted for unpopular spending cuts and higher taxes
          • National Plan
            • Contributed to victory in 1966 due to it being a coherant vision for the future
            • Targeted an annual growth rate of 3.8% in 6 years, and an increase in exports of 5.25% each year
              • Achieved very little
          • Stagflation
        • Trade Unions
          • 'In Place of Strife'
            • Unions had to ballot members before striking
            • Settlements by arbitration
            • Abandoned due to unpopularity
          • Seamen strikes damaged exports, high inflation, and BOPD led to devaluation
          • More powerful than the government
            • Demonstrated government weakness
        • Rejected EEC membership
    • Conservatives 1970-74 (Heath)
      • 1970 Election (30 Seat Majority)
        • Divisions in the Labour Party
          • Wilson's complacency
            • Too relaxed, underestimating eath's electioneering skills
            • Was ahead in approval ratings, so became overconfident
            • Publication of poor trade figures just before election day
          • Splits had re-emerged
            • Betrayal of the party's roots
            • Trade Unions
        • Economic Problems
          • Unemployment and inflation had increased under the Labour government
            • Failure of In Place of Strife and the National Plan
        • Conservative Strengths
          • Heath's Leadership
            • Attacked Labour's economic failures
            • Dealt firmly with challenges to authority
            • Modern leader, clear policies, didn't tolerate old fashioned opinions
          • Policies
            • Promised to reform industrial relations, and apply again to join the EEC
            • Promised the government would interfere less with the economy
      • Failures
        • Economic record
          • Inflation rose by 5%
          • Level of unemployment stayed the same, but more days were lost to strikes
          • Balance of Payments deficit
        • Industrial Relations
          • Britain would fail to benefit from joining the EEC without improved industrial relations
            • Joining the EEC (1973)
          • Industrial Relations Act 1971
            • Legal right to join a Trade Union
              • National Industrial Relations Court (NIRC) and Industrial Relations Commission (IRC) established
                • Unions registered would have better protection against unfair dismissal
                • TUC told members to deregister, and there were bitter confrontations between Unions and employers
            • Similarity to 'In Place of Strife' led to unpopularity
          • Miners' Strike 1972
            • Violent incidents, poorly organised government, and skilfully organised miners
            • Encouraged further striking, increased inflationary pressure, weak government, and emphasised failure of the IR Act
        • Heath's U Turn 1972
          • Change in policy to save failing businesses
          • Oil Price Shock 1973
            • Egypt and Syria went to war against Israel, cut supplies and quadrupled prices due to perceived western support for Israel
            • Government response was:
              • Electricity for industry and businesses only 3 days a week
              • 50mph speed limit on all roads
              • Television closed at 10.30pm
      • Successes
        • Joining the EEC (1973)
    • Labour 1974-79 (Wilson/Callaghan)
      • 1974 Election (-33 Seat Minority)
        • Heath seemed to have lost control and didn't communicate effectively
          • 'Who Governs Britain?'
        • Voters disliked terms of entry to Europe (unpopular Common Agricultural Policy)
        • Three Day Week affected most voters
        • 1974 Election (3 Seat Majority)
      • 1974 Election (3 Seat Majority)
      • Divisions in the Party
        • Drift to the Left
          • Michael Foot and Tony Benn
        • Europe
          • Wilson promised to renegotiate the terms of Britain's membership to the EEC
          • Held a vote amongst ministers on membership, 2:1 in favour of continued membership
      • Economic Difficulties
        • Stagflation
          • Inflation reached over 25% per year
          • Higher worldwide oil prices
          • Labour accepted a pay rise for miners, leading to more groups demanding more
        • Economic recovery depended on conquering inflation
          • IMF Loan (while deepening the rift between the left and the moderate) prevented an economic crisis
          • Increased taxes and cut government spending, limit on wage increases (gradual fall in wage increases)
      • Lib-Lab Pact 1977-78
        • Public confidence in government was falling, Tories had a 25% advantage
        • New liberal leader and Callaghan made a deal of support
      • Winter of Discontent 1978-79
        • Inflation rose, wages were frozen, Trade Unions pressed for wage increases
        • Strikes in Winter hit public services
      • 1979 Election
        • Callaghan seemed out of touch to the crisis
        • Broken promises to Scotland and Wales of devolution
          • No confidence motion with the Tories

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