# Kinetic Thoery and Conduction (Physics)

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• Kinetic Theory and Conduction
• Explanation of the 3 states through Kinetic Theory
• Solids
• Strong forces of attraction hold the solid particles together and a regular and fixed position.
• Particles lack energy so they can only vibrate around their fixed positions.
• Liquids
• There are weaker forces of attraction between the particles
• The particles are close together but they can move past each other and form irregular arrangements
• They have more energy than the solid particles - they move around randomly but at a low speed
• Gasses
• There are almost no forces of attraction between the particles!.
• The particles have more energy than those in liquids and solids.
• They are free to move and travel in random directions at high speeds
• Conduction of heat
• This occurs mainly in solids
• CONDUCTION OF HEAT ENERGY IS THE PROCESS WHERE VIBRATING PARTICLES PASS ON THEIR EXTRA KINETIC ENERGY TO NEIGHBOURING PARTICLES
• This process continues throughout the solid and gradually, some of the kinetic energy is passed all the way through the solid
• This causes a rise in temperature at the other side of the solid.
• This explains the increase of heat radiating from its surface
• Usually conduction is faster in denser solids because the particles are closer together
• This means the particles will collide more often and pass energy between them
• Materials that have larger spaces between their particles so will therefore take longer to conduct heat energy
• These large spaces mean that these materials are insulators
• METALS ARE GOOD CONDUCTORS BECAUSE OF THEIR FREE ELECTRONS
• The electrons are so free in metals that it makes them good conductors
• At the hot end of the metal, the electrons move faster and collide with other free electrons - This transfers energy
• Because the electrons can move freely, this is obviously a much faster way of transferring the energy through the metal than slowly passing it through neighbouring atoms
• This is why heat travels so fast through metals