Kinetic Thoery and Conduction (Physics)

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  • Kinetic Theory and Conduction
    • Explanation of the 3 states through Kinetic Theory
      • Solids
        • Strong forces of attraction hold the solid particles together and a regular and fixed position.
          • Particles lack energy so they can only vibrate around their fixed positions.
      • Liquids
        • There are weaker forces of attraction between the particles
          • The particles are close together but they can move past each other and form irregular arrangements
            • They have more energy than the solid particles - they move around randomly but at a low speed
      • Gasses
        • There are almost no forces of attraction between the particles!.
          • The particles have more energy than those in liquids and solids.
            • They are free to move and travel in random directions at high speeds
    • Conduction of heat
      • This occurs mainly in solids
        • CONDUCTION OF HEAT ENERGY IS THE PROCESS WHERE VIBRATING PARTICLES PASS ON THEIR EXTRA KINETIC ENERGY TO NEIGHBOURING PARTICLES
          • This process continues throughout the solid and gradually, some of the kinetic energy is passed all the way through the solid
            • This causes a rise in temperature at the other side of the solid.
              • This explains the increase of heat radiating from its surface
        • Usually conduction is faster in denser solids because the particles are closer together
          • This means the particles will collide more often and pass energy between them
            • Materials that have larger spaces between their particles so will therefore take longer to conduct heat energy
              • These large spaces mean that these materials are insulators
        • METALS ARE GOOD CONDUCTORS BECAUSE OF THEIR FREE ELECTRONS
          • The electrons are so free in metals that it makes them good conductors
            • At the hot end of the metal, the electrons move faster and collide with other free electrons - This transfers energy
              • Because the electrons can move freely, this is obviously a much faster way of transferring the energy through the metal than slowly passing it through neighbouring atoms
                • This is why heat travels so fast through metals

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