KANT'S DEONTOLOGICAL ETHICS

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  • Created on: 07-06-18 17:56
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  • KANT'S DEONTOLOGICAL ETHICS
    • DEONTOLOGY
      • a type of normative moral theory that views the moral value of an action lies in its dutiful motives
        • morality is a matter of duty
      • whether something is wright or wrong doesn't depend on its consequence but rather an action is right or wrong in itself
      • certain type of actions are right or wrong - how do we distinguish types of actions?
        • a personal may kill someone - the person killing with intention is different to it being an accident or defence
    • MAXIM - Kant's version of intentions, our personl principles that guide our decisions
      • whenever we make a decision we act on a maxim
    • morality is a set of principles that are the same for everyone and apply to everyone
    • ACT ONLY ON THAT MAXIM THROUGH WHICH YOU CAN AT THE SAME TIME WILL THAT IT SHOULD BECOME A UNIVERSAL LAW
      • THE GOOD WILL
        • only good will is morally good without qualification
          • its good in itself
        • having a morally good will is a precondition to deserving happiness
        • exampled as to why moral good is the only good without qualification
          • power can be good but it depends what its used for
      • DUTY
        • Kant argues that to have a good will is to be motivated by duty
    • an 'imperative' is a command + 'hypothetical imperatives' are statements about what you ought to do, on the assumption of some desire of goal
      • they specify a means to an end
      • moral duties are not hypothetical they are what we ought to do full stop - they are your duties regardless of what you want
        • KANT'S DEONTOLOGICAL ETHICS
          • DEONTOLOGY
            • a type of normative moral theory that views the moral value of an action lies in its dutiful motives
              • morality is a matter of duty
            • whether something is wright or wrong doesn't depend on its consequence but rather an action is right or wrong in itself
            • certain type of actions are right or wrong - how do we distinguish types of actions?
              • a personal may kill someone - the person killing with intention is different to it being an accident or defence
          • MAXIM - Kant's version of intentions, our personl principles that guide our decisions
            • whenever we make a decision we act on a maxim
          • morality is a set of principles that are the same for everyone and apply to everyone
          • ACT ONLY ON THAT MAXIM THROUGH WHICH YOU CAN AT THE SAME TIME WILL THAT IT SHOULD BECOME A UNIVERSAL LAW
            • THE GOOD WILL
              • only good will is morally good without qualification
                • its good in itself
              • having a morally good will is a precondition to deserving happiness
              • exampled as to why moral good is the only good without qualification
                • power can be good but it depends what its used for
            • DUTY
              • Kant argues that to have a good will is to be motivated by duty
          • an 'imperative' is a command + 'hypothetical imperatives' are statements about what you ought to do, on the assumption of some desire of goal
            • they specify a means to an end
            • moral duties are not hypothetical they are what we ought to do full stop - they are your duties regardless of what you want
              • CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE
                • its not just morally wrong to disobey the categorical imperative, its also irrational
                  • it involved a self-contradiction
                  • reason both determines what our duties are and gives us the means to discover them
                  • intuitively we think that morality applies to all and only rational beings
                  • morality is universal and so is reason according to Kant
                    • neither morality nor rationality depend on what we want
                  • neither morality nor rationality depend on what we want
                • FORMULA OF HUMANITY
                  • only the good will is good without qualification - everything else that is valuable depends on the good will
          • two tests - there are two ways in which we could fail to be able to will our maxim to become a universal law
            • contradiction in conception
              • you want gift for a party but you don't have money so you steal one
                • your maxim: 'to steal something i want if i can't afford it'
                  • this can only be the right thing to do if everyone could do it
                    • if we could all just help ourselves to whatever we wanted, the idea of owning things would disappear
                      • by definition you cant steal something unless it belongs to someone
                        • stealing presupposes that people own things
                          • but people can only own thing if they don't all go around helping themselves
                            • its logically impossible for everyone to steal
            • contradiction in will
        • CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE
          • its not just morally wrong to disobey the categorical imperative, its also irrational
            • it involved a self-contradiction
            • reason both determines what our duties are and gives us the means to discover them
            • intuitively we think that morality applies to all and only rational beings
            • morality is universal and so is reason according to Kant
            • FORMULA OF HUMANITY
              • only the good will is good without qualification - everything else that is valuable depends on the good will
      • two tests - there are two ways in which we could fail to be able to will our maxim to become a universal law
        • contradiction in conception
          • you want gift for a party but you don't have money so you steal one
            • your maxim: 'to steal something i want if i can't afford it'
              • this can only be the right thing to do if everyone could do it
                • if we could all just help ourselves to whatever we wanted, the idea of owning things would disappear
                  • by definition you cant steal something unless it belongs to someone
                    • stealing presupposes that people own things
                      • but people can only own thing if they don't all go around helping themselves
                        • its logically impossible for everyone to steal
        • contradiction in will
    • 'act in such a way that you always treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, never simply as a means, but always at the same time as an end'

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