Institutionalisation and its effects

  • Created by: Georgia
  • Created on: 03-05-19 10:39
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  • Institutionalisation and its effects
    • Childcare provided by orphanages or hospitals
      • Little emotional care which affects development
    • Children often show disinhibited attachment
      • Clingy, attention-seeking behaviour
    • Bowlby's 44 thieves (1944)     32% of thieves who had emotional problems had affectionless psychopathy
      • 86% of affectionless psychopaths had maternal separation
    • Spitz (1946) Poor care and lack of affection in South American orphanages
      • Children displaying fear, sadness, withdrawal, weight loss and problems sleeping
    • Rutter wanted to test whether effects of institutions could be overturned by a new nurturing and rewarding environment
      • Longitudinal to assess effects over time
      • Assessed cognitive functioning, height and head circumference
      • 50% of orphans were considered retarded and were underweight
      • Practical applications; used to improve hospital care
      • Lots of qualitative data
        • Highly detailled
      • When adopted before 4, orphans showed great improvement in cognitive and physical development
        • Idea of a critical period is supported by Bowlby
      • Not a typical event so difficult to generalise


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