Indian Wars

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  • Created by: Katie
  • Created on: 21-04-14 11:43
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  • Indian Wars
    • From the 1840s onwards, the Plains Indians were seen as a problem, the 'Indian Problem'.
      • They occupied land that was wanted by others and they stood in the way of 'Manifest Destiny'.
      • The 'negotiators' were people who wanted a negotiated solution to the Indian problem.
        • In other words, they hoped through education and missionary work to transform the Plains Indians into good Christian farmers.
      • The 'exterminators', these were the people who would gain the most if the Indians were removed, and those most likely to have suffered from Indian hospitality.
    • The following cycle was repeated several times again and again from 1840 onwards.
      • Indians sign peace treaty.
        • Settlers, miners, railroad companies etc. break treaty
          • Indians attack settlers
            • Army called in to protect settlers
              • Army defeats Indians
                • Indians sign peace treaty.
                  • Settlers, miners, railroad companies etc. break treaty
                    • Indians attack settlers
                      • Army called in to protect settlers
                        • Army defeats Indians
      • First promise made by the whites was in 1830 when the Permanent Indian Frontier was declared.
        • This was the divide between the Indian land and the whites land. However, this kept moving West due to 'Manifest Destiny'.
        • This promise was broken by the settlers around 1840 when white pioneers and settlers began crossing the Plains to California and Oregon.
          • Gold was discovered in California 1848, leading the gold rush in 1849.
          • This resulted in small fights (skirmishes) between the Indians and the whites.
          • Policy of Manifest Destiny means whites are now encourages to go West.
            • This resulted in small fights (skirmishes) between the Indians and the whites.
          • Indians feel threatened. and the US army forts were built in the Plains to protect the trails.
        • The next promise was made in 1851 with the Fort Laramie Treaty.
          • Large areas of land were given to the Indians "for all time". The Sioux were given large areas around the Blank Hills in Dakota.
          • This promise was broken by the whites in 1859 when gold was found in Colorado.
        • Despite the promises of land "for all time", In 1861, a Reservation Policy was introduced which begun with promises of land and food in return for staying on the reservations.
          • Not all Indians went onto reservations so in 1862, the Homestead Act was introduced which offered land on the Plains to the whites.
          • 1866 - cattle drives began to cross Indian land.
            • Not all Indians went onto reservations so in 1862, the Homestead Act was introduced which offered land on the Plains to the whites.
          • Railroads were built across Indian land.
            • 1866 - cattle drives began to cross Indian land.
            • New towns began to grow on the Plains.
              • Railroads were built across Indian land.
                • Consequences = the Little Crow's War 1862 - 1862.
                  • Consequences = Red Cloud's War 1866-1867 (Sioux)
                    • In 1863 gold was discovered in the Rocky Mountains. This broke the existing peace treaty and the reaction of the Sioux was to attack travellers along the trail as the government couldn't prevent the miners travelling across Sioux land.
                    • These attacks continued until 1866 and the government tried to set up peace talks with Red Cloud. During this time, they had also ordered the army to build forts along the trail
                      • In disgust, Red Cloud attacked the army.
                    • In 1868 the government were forced to admit defeat and change its policy. The government realised that the Sioux and their allies couldn't be defeated militarily.
                      • At the same time an alternative route to the gold-mining areas had been opened so the army agreed to retreat from the forts and under the terms of the Second Fort Laramie Treaty, the Great Sioux reservation was created.
                  • Life for the 12,000 Santee Sioux that lived on reservations was hard.
                  • In 1861, cutworms destroyed their crops. They were forced to live on credit but their annual cash payment didn't arrive in June 1862.
                    • They weren't able to buy any food and as their situation got worse, the threat of violence grew.
                  • Little Crow tried to contain his starving people but violence erupted on 17 August 1862.
                  • After attacks on the Indian Agency, Little Crow didn't have a large enough army to keep attacking other places.
                  • They were then transferred to a new reservation after some had been sentenced to death and others had been captured or surrendered.
            • Before the 2nd Fort Laramie Treaty, in 1867, the southern Plains Indians agreed to move to Oklahoma as part of the treaty of medicine lodge, there was now a ban on leaving reservations.
              • 1889 - Oklahoma land rush where land was given to the whites.
            • In 1868, the second fort Laramie treaty was introduced where the Sioux were given the Black Hills and there was a ban on leaving the reservations.
              • 1874 gold was discovered in the Black Hills.
                • As a consequence of this, there was the Great Sioux War in 1876 - 1877. This included the Battle of the Little Bighorn (Custer).
                  • The promise was also broken by the whites as the Southern buffalo herd were destroyed in 1875.
                  • The Great Sioux War
                    • In 1874, George Armstrong Custer led the Seventh Cavalry to the Black Hills.
                    • They were there to protect the railway surveyors and to find if there was any gold. This broke the Fort Laramie Treaty signed six years earlier.
                    • There was gold discovered and the Sioux were offered $6,000,000 to buy the Black hills but this was a ridiculous offer as the Black Hills were sacred to the Sioux.
                    • In December of 1875, the Sioux were ordered back on to their reservations but the winter was so harsh, this was impossible even if they wished to.
                    • By February 1876, the army were instructed to treat any Indians outside the reservation as hostile.
                    • General Philip Sheridan ordered a three-pronged campaign which led to the Battle od the Little Bighorn.
                      • Battle of the Little Bighorn
                        • More on other mindmap about the whole process and Custer.
                  • Battle of the Little Bighorn
                    • More on other mindmap about the whole process and Custer.
              • The promise was also broken by the whites as the Southern buffalo herd were destroyed in 1875.
            • By 1880 all Indians were on reservations. The US government would provide them with food and rations. However, all Indian culture and religion was banned on the reservations.
              • This agreement was broken between 1883 and 1887. In 1883 the Northern Buffalo herd had been destroyed.
                • Sioux would often attack the army and food rations on reservations would be reduced. Reservations broke up into small areas and the Massacre at Wounded Knee in 1890 ended the Ghost Dance Movement.
                  • In 1887 the Dawes General Allotment Act broke up communal reservations into small plots of land and any land that wasn't being use was sold to the whites.
              • In 1887 the Dawes General Allotment Act broke up communal reservations into small plots of land and any land that wasn't being use was sold to the whites.

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