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  • Immunity
    • Defence Mechanisms
      • Non-specific
        • Barriers
          • Protective covering (skin)
          • Epithelia covered in mucus in nose throat etc
          • Hydrochloric acid in the stomach
        • Phagocytosis
          • A phagocyte recognises the antigens on a pathogen
          • The cytoplasm of the phagocyte moves round the pathogen, engulfing it
          • The pathogen is now contained in a phagocytic vacuole in the cytoplasm of the phagocyte
          • A lysosome fuses with the phagocytic vacuole. The lysosomal enzymes break down the pathogen
          • The phagocyte then presents the pathogen's antigens - it sticks the antigens on its surface to activate other immune system cells
      • Specific
        • Humoral Response
          • 1) Pathogen is engulfed by a phagocyte and the antibodies are presented on the cell surface membrane
          • 2) T cells complement he antigens and they activate the B cells
          • 3) The B cells rapidly divides by mitosis. This produces:
            • Memory B Cells
              • Secondary Immune Response
              • Remembers the antibodies made for the next attack
          • Plasma Cells
            • Primary Immune Response
            • Plasma cells produce antigens rapidly
        • Cell Mediated Response
          • 1) Pathogens invade our cells
          • 2) Phagocytosis occurs however instead of the pathogens product being absorbed they are displayed on the cell surface membrane
          • 3) The T helper cells have receptors that compliment the antigens of the pathogens
          • 4) The T helper cells rapidly divides by mitosis to form lots of clones. These clones become:
            • Stimulants to promote phagocytosis
            • Stimulate B cells to divide
              • Memory B cells
              • Plasma cell
                • Antibodies
          • 5) Kill affected cells
    • Antibodies
    • Vaccinations
      • Features of Successful Vaccination Programme
        • Must be available to the majority of the population
        • Few side effects but works at the same time
        • Economic and affordable vaccine
      • Why vaccinations don't eliminate diseases
        • People may not believe in vaccinations or just not be able to get to them
        • Pathogen may mutate too quickly before every one is vaccinated
        • People have defective immune systems
      • Passive
        • Antigens are stimulated to be produce by an external source (vaccinations)
      • Active
        • When our body produces antibodies on its own


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