Ideology Comm144

  • Created by: lydia82
  • Created on: 24-01-19 12:06
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  • Ideology- Theoretical Perspectives
    • Marxism
      • Focuses on class
        • Middle Class vs Working Class
      • The Base
        • The base is classed as underneath the superstructure, in order for the base to work you must have a superstructure
      • The Superstructure
        • Dominant classes use things like culture, traditions, rituals to control ideas
      • False Conciousness
        • The idea that the world has been filled with so many media messages that people accept them as reality
      • The class that is the ruling material force is also the ruling intellectual force
    • Antonio Gramsci- Hegemony
      • Power is MAINTAINEDby culture norms
      • Makes people believe that certain ideas and representations are the norm
      • Unlike Marxism with ideas being forced onto people, this is a more suggesting it
    • Louis Althusser
      • Ideology is a system of representations governed by rules that serve political ends
      • ISAs, media, family
      • RSAs, police, military
    • Slavoj Zizek
      • Ideology operates by creating a desired fantasy which supports an exploitative reality
      • Even though the world is mediated, we love it and we don't want to be torn away from it
    • Ideology, Stereotyping and Otherness
      • Edward Said
        • Orientalism
          • From travellers tales, classic knowledge and myths, people formed ideas about foreign places, cultures and ethnicities
          • Projected fantasies about oriental cultures and this then ended up being a form of stereotyping
          • This then creates the 'other' who is disempowered
          • By creating a clear distinction between us and oriental, we then gain a sense of self
      • Binary Oppositions
        • Creating a sense of 'Us and Them'
      • Michael Faucault backed up Said's theory
      • Michael Faucault
        • He says Ideology works through discourse
          • Discourse creates subjectivities- another way of saying stereotypes
        • Power and knowledge mirror each other
      • The 'Tourist Gaze'- John Urry
        • Representations that people take with them on holiday
        • We look for ideas from films, tourist mags etc when we go to places


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