how did the quest for civil rights change

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  • how did the quest for civil rights change between 1963 and 1972?
    • Malcolm X
      • offered radically different programme, more violent
        • appealed to black Americans living in ghettos
          • mid 1960's 70% lived in black only ghettos in northern cities
        • criticised MLK for being too non violent saying it was taking too long
      • joined nation of Islam (NOI) and gained attention for radical views
        • split from this in 1964 and created the OAAU (organisation of african-american unity)
      • assassinated by members of Islam in February 1965
        • career cut short - not able to achieve all he intended to
      • less important for his achievements
        • more for his influence on other black American radicals
    • Black Power and Panthers
      • May 1967 Stokely Carmichael became chairperson after replacing Henry 'Rap' Brown
        • 1966 CORE selected Floyd McKissick as chairperson
      • 1966 CORE annual convention in Baltimore endorsed the idea of black power
      • Black Panther party set up in October 1966 by Bobby Seale and Huey P Newton
        • advocated back nationalism of Marcus Garvey and Malcolm X
        • distinctive uniforms and were armed
      • Mexico city Olympics 1968 men 400m ceremony 1st and 3rd place
        • Tommy  Smith and John Carlos made black power salute with black leather gloves
        • high publicity - international support, both banned from competing
      • 1969 28 members of black panthers killed by police in shoot outs, hundreds more imprisoned
        • 1972 black panthers in decline follow clampdowns from FBI
      • even at its height only had 5,000 members
    • MLK's changing priorities
      • continued to be the dominant force until his assassination in April 1968
      • king aimed to pressure federal government into action about voting
        • March on Selma 7th March 1965
          • met with Alabama state police and attacked received national  mediaattention
      • contributed to passing of 1965 Voting rights act
        • met with Alabama state police and attacked received national  mediaattention
      • 1966: attempted to desegregate housing in north
        • SCLC poorly organised protest and march through Gage Park (all white suburb of  Chicago)
        • protesters met by white resistance
      • helped in south but unable toe end housng segregation in north
    • Ceaser Chavez and Chicano Movement
      • inspired Hispanics mainly in California where agriculture workers faced poor pay and conditions
      • united farm workers union registered 100,000 new Hispanic voters
      • non-violent strikers e.g. 1965: grape workers, leading to a national boycott of California grapes for 5 years
      • wanted to be more radical and was inspired by the black power movement - split into universities and organisations
      • not successful in gaining equal rights and began to splinter by 1970's


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