Specialisation/ ICT/ Growth in Services

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  • Growth in services
    • Employment in manufacturing and secondary industries has fallen.
    • Specialisation
      • Specialisation refers to workers only employed on a small aspect of their work.
        • Such a worker will not be involved fully in the production of goods but will concentrate on a particular of the production.
      • Benefits of specialisation
        • Workers can be more skilled if they focus on one task rather than be involved with the whole production process.
        • Output can be produced more quickly as workers become more familiar with the reduced number of tasks that they are required to complete.
        • Businesses can produce output at lower costs due to faster and more skilled workers and this saving may be shared with workers in higher wages
        • Workers can concentrate on the tasks that they are most skilled at.
      • Limitations of specialisation
        • Workers and production will become interdependent. Workers will depend on each other in order to complete the overall output, which may cause problems if one area of production fails, through mistakes being made
        • Jobs become boring if workers are only involved in repeated small part of the production focus.
        • Morale in the workplace as jobs become more repetitive and labour turnover may rise.
        • If a worker is absent it may be hard to arrange cover for their section if workers are untrained in jobs other than their own.
        • Workers will become less flexible and it will be harder to adapt to new types of goods need to be produced.
      • Information Technology
        • The Internet
          • The growth in online retailing removes the need for as many people to be employed in shops.
          • Jobs will have been created in web-based businesses.
        • Email
          • Email has changed the way we work at work- speeding up and easing how we communicate with large numbers of people in our own companies or across the world.
        • Home working
          • Many people welcome flexible working as it helps them to work and be looking after a young family.
          • This can help businesses reduce costs as they do not have to provide as many facilities at the main offices
    • Information Technology
      • The Internet
        • The growth in online retailing removes the need for as many people to be employed in shops.
        • Jobs will have been created in web-based businesses.
      • Email
        • Email has changed the way we work at work- speeding up and easing how we communicate with large numbers of people in our own companies or across the world.
      • Home working
        • Many people welcome flexible working as it helps them to work and be looking after a young family.
        • This can help businesses reduce costs as they do not have to provide as many facilities at the main offices

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