groups displays as an adaptive response to aggression

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  • Group display as an adaptive response
    • Sports
      • Wilson claims that 'Xenophobia' has been selected by natural selection
        • those who are fearful of strangers are protected and pass on their genes
      • xenophobic tendencies in football crowds
      • many sports fans act as a close knit collective, with a hatred of opposition fans
        • victory brings glory to fans
      • territorial
        • aggression Is he response to an invasion of ones territory
        • New Zealand rugby team do the 'Haka' to intimidate opponents
        • evolutionary
          • allows us to defend valuable resources associated with our territory
        • increase in testosterone
          • neave and wolfson
            • teams playing at home were more likely to win due to a surge of testosterone
            • goalkeepers have the burden of defending their territory more and also have highest levels of testosterone
      • de-individuation
        • camera's at half time pointing to people in the crowd decreased violence
      • real life application
        • This research has helped sporting clubs to take steps to reduce xenophobia and therefore aggression
        • German clubs played with a slogan on their shirts which translates as “My Friend is a Foreigner”,
    • Warfare
      • warfare is dangerous and costly and so its difficult to see why an organism would participate in it
        • therefore there must be adaptive benefits for the individual and their offspring
      • Benefits of aggressive displays
        • sexual selection
          • to ensure their genes are passed on they must compete with other men for the females attention
            • aggression shows that they will protect them and there offspring
              • divale and harris
          • Chagnon found that male warriors in traditional societies have more female partners
            • suggests a reproductive benefit
          • Palmer and Tiley
            • young street gang memebers have more females partners than normal young males
        • Acquisition of status
          • displays of ferocity and aggressiveness would lead to peers respecting them and more likely to cooperate at a team
          • By working as a team they can protect their group successfully from threats
      • costs
        • signals of commitment
          • scars and mutilation show a commitment to the group
          • by taking part in these displays individuals demonstrate loyalty to the group
        • minimising the likelihood of deflection
          • during battle each individual is concerned about their well being
          • by being concerned for the group the well being of the group is more important than the individual
            • also less likely to abscond to another group
              • thorpe
      • gender bias
        • don't adequately reflect behaviour of women
        • admas claim that there is no idea of warrior women
          • Camillia in the Aeneid
          • women have more to lose in terms of reproductive success
          • limited as it cant be generalised to women
    • Limitations of evolutionary approach
      • only based on mating success, status or commitment to group
      • Watson believes it could be di de-individuation


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