Goldstein (1988)

A detailed mind map including aims, procedure, sample, findings and conclusions of Goldstein's 1988 study.

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  • Goldstein (1988)
    • 'Gender differences in the course of schizophrenia'
    • Looked at schizophrenic patients in the early stages of the disorder and were followed for 10 years.
      • Those chosen had a hospital diagnosis of schizophrenia on admission and on discharge, had a hospital stay of less than six months, expected to return to their families, had no other mental health issues and no drug or alcohol misuse.
    • Data was collected at a private psychiatric hospital in New York.
    • The study aimed to test the reliability and validity of the DSM  and differences in the DSM-II and DSM-III.
      • The study aimed to see gender differences in the course of schizophrenia
        • The study also aimed to consider social factors before diagnosis to see if they had an impact on the course of the disorder in regards to gender.
        • Looking at number of rehospitalisations and length of stay.
    • Patients aged between 18 and 45.
      • Patients did not differ much in social class, age or education however their job status did with more women in white collar jobs and employed.
    • Patients were rediagnosed using the DSM-III, hospital records were used for the rediagnosis and a single blind technique was used.
      • Goldstein also carried out a rediagnosis and two experts carried out a rediagnosis of a random sample (4 men and 4 women).
        • A 0.80 agreement rate was found showing that the DSM-III provides an accurate and reliable diagnosis.
          • Premorbid functioning was measured by a questionnairedealing with isolation, peer relationships and interests from the ages of 6-13 and 14-20 giving an overall rating.
        • Symptoms were rated by trained interviewers using specially developed questions.
      • Information was gathered about symptoms, premorbid functioning and the course of illness using interviews and questionnaires.
      • Course of the illness was operationalised by the number of re-admissions and length of stays in hospital over a 10 year period.
    • The study looked at first time admissions and those who had one previous hospitalisation - 90.
    • Schizophrenic women had a lower mean number of re-admissions to hospital and shorter stays in hospital.
      • Men had an average of 2.24 re-admissions over 10 years in comparison to 1.12 admissions for women.
        • Men also had an average hospital stay of 417 days over 10 years, compared to 206 for women.
          • It was found that 13% of the gender effect was due to premorbid functioning in terms of re-hospitalisation
    • Females with schizophrenia experienced fewer re-admissions and shorter lengths of stay over a 5 and 10 year period than males.
      • The gender difference was strong enough even when the DSM-III was used
        • Gender differences seemed to start early in the disorder.
      • The study suggests that males have poorer outcomes than females.


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