Bottom up theory

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  • Gibson's bottom-up theory
    • In order to perceive, we need nothing but the info arriving at our senses
    • IDA
      • Reductionism
  • OPTIC ARRAY contains all the visual info from the environment that strikes the eye and is the starting point for all perception.
    • Gibson's bottom-up theory
      • In order to perceive, we need nothing but the info arriving at our senses
      • IDA
        • Reductionism
    • OPTIC FLOW
      • Source of info concerning height, distance and speed, that directly inform perception.
        • Johansson (1973) found evidence to support the view that movement in our optic flow help us to make sense of what we see
          • He found that a black-clad actor with lights on his knees and ankles was able to be detected as a person only when he was moving. When he was stationary, he was unable to be detected.
            • This suggests that movement is important for perception and therefore supports the optic flow concept of Gibson's theory.
              • Maher and West (1993) found something similar.
    • TEXTURE GRADIENTS
    • AFFORDANCES
      • How do we know that the objects we are looking at are for sitting on, eating or grasping?
        • All objects offer/afford certain responses e.g. chair affords sitting on but standing on if changing a lightbulb
          • Gibson argued that the meaning of an object can be directly perceived and this meaning tells you what you can do with the object
      • Warren (1984) tried to offer support for concept of affordances
        • He studied whether pp's could judge whether staircases with differently proportioned steps could "afford" to be climbed
          • He found the length of the pp's leg actually determined could or could not be "afforded" (climbed)
            • He argued that even without past experiences, we are able to perceive functionality in objects, further supporting Gibson's theory
      • Application/examples
        • See a button - know to push
        • See a switch - know to flip
        • See a knob - know to rotate
  • EYE TO BRAIN
    • Application
      • OPTIC FLOW
        • Source of info concerning height, distance and speed, that directly inform perception.
          • Johansson (1973) found evidence to support the view that movement in our optic flow help us to make sense of what we see
            • He found that a black-clad actor with lights on his knees and ankles was able to be detected as a person only when he was moving. When he was stationary, he was unable to be detected.
              • This suggests that movement is important for perception and therefore supports the optic flow concept of Gibson's theory.
                • Maher and West (1993) found something similar.
      • Expanding flow field
        • Elements in middle of field of vision pass around as you move
          • Contracting flow field - if you look out back window of car you'd experience contracting
    • Use of parallel lines on the road
      • Application
        • Expanding flow field
          • Elements in middle of field of vision pass around as you move
            • Contracting flow field - if you look out back window of car you'd experience contracting
      • Get narrower as you approach roundabout to give impression you're accelerating
        • Illustrates importance of Gibson's work helping people act more safely in their everyday lives
    • According to Gibson, our perceptual world is made up of surfaces of different textures, these can be used to assist perception of depth and orientation
      • TEXTURE GRADIENTS
      • Texture = collection of objects in visual field
      • Gradient = change in relative size of these elements
      • Gibson and Bridgeman (1987) found the ability to detect texture gradients within our optic array
      • HOWEVER - prior knowledge may be the reason we can name it? Could investigate by infant studies
        • Frichtel et al (2006)
          • Presented pp's with a film of a car driving through scenery. Evidence was found that infants as young as 4 months could perceive using texture gradient
            • Implying that the ability is innate, and lending support to Gibson's theory that perception is reliant on innate mechanisms
    • HOWEVER - the idea that optical array provides direct info seems unlikely. Affected by cultural differences, experiences and emotions.
      • He argued that even without past experiences, we are able to perceive functionality in objects, further supporting Gibson's theory

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