Germany's International Position 1924-28

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  • Germany's International position 1924-28
    • Gustav Stresemann + policy of fulfilment
      • Everyone agreed the the Treaty of Versailles was unjust + placed millions outside of german territory
        • Foreign policy of Weimar was always based on revising the terms of the treaty
          • Nationalist right wanted to reject the treaty + rebuild military strength
          • Policy of Fulfilment - Germany cooperating with the Allies on issues such as reparations or removing troops
      • 1923-29 Stresemann was foreign minister
        • Responsible for ending hyperinflation, cooperating over the Dawes plan + getting french troops to leave the Ruhr
          • He wanted to find a way of reassuring France of Germany's peaceful intentions
    • 1925 locarno Pact
      • October 1925 - Western european powers met in Locarno
        • France, USA, Britain + Italy attended
          • Hailed as a triumph - Germany accepting their losses
      • This led to the Rhineland Pact:
        • Germany, France + Belgium would respect the western border
          • Germany would keep its troops out of Rhineland
            • Britain + Italy agreed to help Germany, France or Belgium if they were attacked by their neighbours
      • This led to the Arbitration Treaties
        • Germany agreed with France, belgium, Poland + Czechoslovakia that disputes would be settled be a committee
      • Conflicts regarding the Western border would be dealt with by the League of Nations
        • France couldn't go into germany if there were disputes
      • France got support from Britain - Germany got it guaranteed that the 1923 Ruhr could never be repeated
        • Rhineland was evacuated within 5 years
    • Relations with the USSR
      • The Treaty of Berlin
        • April 1926 Germany + USSR renewed their treaty with the Treaty fo Berlin
          • Germany would remain neutral if Russia were to get into a war (as long as USSR was not the aggressor)
            • Showed Stresemann hadn't dropped his desire to guarantee Germany's eastern frontiers
      • USSR became a Communist state (1922)
        • Germany adopted democracy - most germans were opposed to Communism
        • Both countries were defeated in the war + had punitive peace treaties
          • Germany adopted democracy - most germans were opposed to Communism
          • + existence of Poland supported by France was a threat + Germany and USSR were outcast nations
      • April 1922 - Walter Rathenau secured the Treaty of Rapallo
        • Germany + Russia resumed trade + diplomatic relations restored
          • + outstanding claims for war damage were dropped + Germany could develop new weapons in Russia secretly
        • The Allies were angered by this treaty - showed Germany's steps to get around the disarmament terms
    • The Extent of Disarmament
      • Kellogg-Briand Pact
        • 1928 - signed the kellogg-briand pact with France + USA
          • Frank kellogg (US Secretary of state) + Aristide Briand (Foreign Minister of France)
            • Stats would voluntarily agree to renounce the use of offensive wars ro resolve disputes
              • Germany signed first
                • Symbolically good but lack of enforcement rendered it useless
      • To ensure the disarmament of the Versailles treaty - Allied forces occupied the Rhineland
        • An Inter-Allied Control Commission was established to oversee this
          • Germany made arrangements to build submarines in Spain + tanks + artillery in Sweden
            • New fortifications were built along the Polish border
              • Most recruits to the army were enlisted for short periods of time + put through rigorous training
                • Ensured a reserve of highly-trained men + army sponsored paramilitary groups
        • General Von Seeckt was determined to have a military alliance with USSR to destroy the independent Poland
          • Rathenau + Stresemann were involved with the Treaties of Rapallo + Berlin
            • Turned a blind eye to extent of military operation
    • The End of Allied occupation
      • Removal of foreign forces from Germany was an aim shared by all parties
        • France was reluctant fro the removal of Allies forces
        • After the Dawes Plan + the Locarno Pact forces began to withdraw
          • After the Young Plan the way was clear for the removal of all Allied forces
            • Withdrawn from Zone 1 of the Rhineland in 1926, zone 2 in 1929 + zone 3 in 1930
          • The End of Allied occupation
            • Removal of foreign forces from Germany was an aim shared by all parties
              • France was reluctant fro the removal of Allies forces
              • After the Dawes Plan + the Locarno Pact forces began to withdraw
                • After the Young Plan the way was clear for the removal of all Allied forces
                  • Withdrawn from Zone 1 of the Rhineland in 1926, zone 2 in 1929 + zone 3 in 1930

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