gender differences in education

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  • GENDER AND DIFFERENTIAL EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT
    • KEY FACTS
      • 1) Girls get better results at all levels
      • 2) girls get bettwe results in most subjects at GCSE
      • 3) girls are more likely to pass their A levels
      • 4) women are more likley to go to university
      • 5) men seem to have most success at the highest levels of university
      • 6) gitls tend to go for communication based subjects like english and sociology. whereas boys tend to go for technical ones: maths
    • INSIDE SCHOOL FACTORS AND GIRLS
      • MITSOS AND BROWNE teching has been feminised - women are more likely to be teachers
      • textbooks and teaching resources are less likely to sterotype girls into passive roles
      • GCSES include more coursework which is better suited to giris as theyre: more organised, put in more effort and have better consentration
      • the curriculum forced girls to do traditionally male subjects - science
    • OUTSIDE FACTORS AND GIRLS
      • policies like equal pay act and sex descrimination act helps create more equal oppourunities - changed attitudes in schools
      • SHARPE found that girls priorities have changed - they now want careers and qualiforcations and want to be finacially independant
        • feminist movement caused a change in female expectations - more careful about negative sterotyping
      • boys tend to spend their lesuire time being physically active. but girls spend it communicating and being social = they develop langauge skills
    • WHY BOYS UNDERACHIEVE
      • boys may be having an indentity crisis - decline of breadwinner role for men and rise in male unemploymentmight mean boys dont see the point in education
      • teachers have a lower expectation of boys - can lead to a self fulfilling prophecy
        • theyre more likely to be excluded from school
      • the feminisation of teaching means that boys dont have as mant role models in school
        • reading is often seen as uncool or girly -  boys dont tend to read so they dont develop communication skills
  • SUBJECT CHOICE
    • May be influenced by gender socialisation. feminimity and masculinity create different expectations and sterotypes of what to study
    • KELLY found that science is seen as a masculine subject
    • parental and teacher expectations may encourage girls to follow what they see as traditional - pressure to conform to social norms
  • OLD OF GIRLS EXPLANATION UNDERACHIEVEMENT
    • There are 3 explanations for why girls didnt do as well as boys before the 1980's
    • 1) biological explanations said gils matured at an earlier age so did better younger and boys would catch up at 16 and overtake
    • 2) gender sterotyping started before kids go to school (toys) which helped to socialse girls into sterotypical roles of caring and mothering
    • 3) STANWORTH said classroom interaction disadvantaged girls - they got less attention
      • SPENDER argued that the curriculum was male centered as boys got more attnetion and got away with being disruptive in class

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