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  • Gender
    • How have attitudes changed?
      • •Women are treated better than they used to be. •They are able to vote & work, divorce their husbands etc. •Previously they were expected to stay at home. •Society used to be patriarchal (male dominated) but is now less so. 
      • •Feminism now also exists. Different types include:  
        • •Liberal feminism: focusing on law, Radical feminsim: total rebuilding of society needed due to patriarchy Marxist feminism: oppression of women is down to private ownership Black, postcolonial & indigeneous feminism:  focuses on non-white women Ecofeminism: care of the planet will lead to care for women Separatist feminism: linked to lesbian feminism. heterosexual relations disempower women.
      • •Society is now also accepting of transgender people. •Some people actually do not give their children a gendered uprbinging. 
    • What does Christianity teach about the roles of men and women?
      • “wives submit yourselves to your own husbands as you do to the lord…..”
      • Husbands ought to love their wives as their own bodies. He who loves his wife loves himself. After all, no one ever hated their own body, but they feed and care for their body, just as Christ does the church
      • “For this reason a man will leave his father and mother and be united to his wife, and the two will become one flesh.”[
      • Each one of you also must love his wife as he loves himself, and the wife must respect her husband.”
      • Ephesians 5:22-33:
      • SUGGESTS
      • · Men should treat their wives well but should rule over them · Wives should do anything their husband says & also respect what he says 
      • Genesis 2: 20-22
        • But for Adam no suitable helper was found. So the Lord God caused the man to fall into a deep sleep; and while he was sleeping, he took one of the man’s ribs and then closed up the place with flesh. 
        • Then the Lord God made a woman from the rib he had taken out of the man, and he brought her to the man.
        • Suggests
          • ·        Woman was made as a helper for man
        • Genesis 3 teaches that woman is responsible for sin and evil. She is weak willed. 
        • Genesis 1: “man was made in the image of God”   Suggests that men and women were made equal.
      • Mulieris Dignitatem 18-19:
        • •"He owes a special debt to the woman" •- women are more capable of attending to the needs of others. •- Pregnancy takes place WITHIN a woman. 
        • •- Mary was the "fulfilment of the female personality: motherhood & virginity" •- Motherhood makes woman self giving
        • SUMMARY: men and women are equal but different. They should be treated in different ways due to their different roles/ abilities. 
        • •- men & women have different characteristics given by God •- a woman's role should be respected
        • SEXIST
        • Written by Pope John Paul II in response the accusation the Church was sexist
        • •No one would be here without motherhood, so women should be treated well. •They are responsible for the continuation of the Church. •Both paretns are needed to contribute to a child's upbringing. 
    • What does Christianity teach about?  Motherhood 
      • •Catholic feminists:  church views on motherhood are over romanticised. It should be an option not a burden. 
      • •Women have a special dignity through motherhood
      • •MD: " a special debt is owed to the woman" & two dimensions to the female personality "motherhood & virginity" 
      • •Conservative protestants: "Women should make a domestic heaven"
      • •Liberal Protestants: not all adults make good parents. stop putting pressure on to be parents. 
      • Is motherhood liberating or restricting?
        • Liberating
          • - MD: gives women the opportunity to develop their best characteristics
          • - Women now do not have to take maternity leave and can share it with their partner.
        • Restricting
          • - Simone de Beauvoir: motherhood forces a woman to suspend her own interests and personality in order to take care of her children.They have motherhood forced upon them and do not develop as individuals.
          • - Ann Oakley: a woman’s feeling that she has to become a mother is not biological but socially constructed. There is no maternal instinct.Women feel a wealth of frustrations at motherhood.
          • -not the same for every woman so difficult to say
        • - There is now less pressure onwomen and men can take agreater role.
    • What does Christianity teach about?  Family
      • •Conservative protestants: same sex families are not real families. 
      • •COCC: "intact families" are the most successful based on evidence. Human love demands thte total gift of persons to one another
      • •Maria Clara Bingemer (Catholic feminist): view of Mary as a Virgin is a false consciousness. Church should be more inclusive of single parent families. 
      • •MD: "motherhood is the fruit of the marriage union of man & woman" 
      • •Liberal Protestants: the most important thing is love. Many families in the Bible eg. servant families. 


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