Unit 2 Biology synoptic essay

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  • Gas exchange
    • Surface area to volume ratio
      • Relates to heat loss
    • Mass flow
      • Like a river containing solute
      • Faster than diffusion
      • Ventillation
    • Sponges have thin walls and flagella inside to move water
    • Tapeworms have flattened bodies
    • Insects
      • Exoskeleton prevents drying out
      • Spiracles
        • Trachea
          • Tracheoles
            • Oxygen diffuses directly into muscle cells
            • At rest water stays here
              • During muscle contraction lactic acid is produced which causes water (with oxygen) to diffuse into muscle cells)
          • Rings of chitin
            • Polysaccharide
              • Starch
                • Plants
                • Amylose
                  • Coiled
                • Amylopectin
                  • Highly branched
                • Broken down by Amylase
              • Glycogen
                • Animals
                • Similar to Amylopectin
                • Broken down quickly by glycogen phosphorylase
              • Doesn't change water potential
            • Fungal cell wall
        • Rings of chitin
          • Polysaccharide
            • Starch
              • Plants
              • Amylose
                • Coiled
              • Amylopectin
                • Highly branched
              • Broken down by Amylase
            • Glycogen
              • Animals
              • Similar to Amylopectin
              • Broken down quickly by glycogen phosphorylase
            • Doesn't change water potential
          • Fungal cell wall
      • Larger insects contract muscles to ventilate air
      • Preventing water loss
        • Spiracles close
        • Hairs around spiracles
    • Fish
      • Very little oxygen in water
      • Gills
        • Fillaments
          • Lamellae
            • Large surface area and short diffusion distance
      • Water enters the buccal cavity in a one way system as water is too dense to be ventiallated like in mammals
        • Leaves via the opercular valve
      • Countercurrent flow
    • Humans
      • pulmonary
      • systemic
      • Blood vessels
        • Arteries
          • Thick elastic walls
            • Can withstand high pressure
        • Arterioles
          • Thinner
            • Smooth muscle
              • Reduces blood flow between arteries and capillaries
        • Capillaries
          • Single cell walls
            • Good for diffusion
        • Veins
          • Small veins called venules
          • Semi lunar valves to prevent backflow
            • Returns blood to the heart-low pressure
              • Large lumen
      • Pressure decreases from arteries to veins
      • Tissue fluid
        • Forced into tissue fluid by hydrostatic pressure
        • Re-enters capillary by diffusion
        • Excess drains into lymph vessels
          • Empties back into superior vena cava
          • White blood cells formed at lymph nodes
          • Lymph also contains fats
        • Oededma is swelling caused by excess tissue fluid due to lack of protein
    • Oxygen
      • Transported by heamoglobin
        • 4 protein chains with 4 heam iron groups
          • One oxygen attached to each
        • Respiration produces CO2 which forms carbonic acid in red blood cells and lowers pH
          • Causes O2 to unload
        • Lugworms have a high affinity for oxygen as their burrows are covered by water
        • Mice have a high respiration rate so a low affinity for oxygen so loads is loaded
  • Hairs around spiracles
  • Plant organelles
    • Chloroplasts
      • Thylakoid disks
        • Grana
      • Stroma
      • Chlorophyll
        • Mg ions are surrounded by porhyrin to make chlorophyll
          • Ions
            • Untitled
            • Untitled
      • Ribosomes
      • DNA
      • Starch grains
      • Vacuoles
        • Filled with sap
        • Keeps cells rigid
      • Cell wall
        • Cellulose
          • B-Glucose
            • Alternate molecules are inverted
          • Rigid straight chains
          • H bonds between microfibrils
          • Broken down by cellulase in bacteria
            • Herbivores have mutalistic bacteria
      • Plants
        • Waterproof cuticle to prevent water loss
        • Gas exchange
          • Surface area to volume ratio
            • Relates to heat loss
          • Mass flow
            • Like a river containing solute
            • Faster than diffusion
            • Ventillation
          • Sponges have thin walls and flagella inside to move water
          • Tapeworms have flattened bodies
          • Insects
            • Exoskeleton prevents drying out
            • Spiracles
              • Trachea
                • Tracheoles
                  • Oxygen diffuses directly into muscle cells
                  • At rest water stays here
                    • During muscle contraction lactic acid is produced which causes water (with oxygen) to diffuse into muscle cells)
            • Larger insects contract muscles to ventilate air
            • Preventing water loss
              • Spiracles close
          • Fish
            • Very little oxygen in water
            • Gills
              • Fillaments
                • Lamellae
                  • Large surface area and short diffusion distance
            • Water enters the buccal cavity in a one way system as water is too dense to be ventiallated like in mammals
              • Leaves via the opercular valve
            • Countercurrent flow
          • Humans
            • pulmonary
            • systemic
            • Blood vessels
              • Arteries
                • Thick elastic walls
                  • Can withstand high pressure
              • Arterioles
                • Thinner
                  • Smooth muscle
                    • Reduces blood flow between arteries and capillaries
              • Capillaries
                • Single cell walls
                  • Good for diffusion
              • Veins
                • Small veins called venules
                • Semi lunar valves to prevent backflow
                  • Returns blood to the heart-low pressure
                    • Large lumen
            • Pressure decreases from arteries to veins
            • Tissue fluid
              • Forced into tissue fluid by hydrostatic pressure
              • Re-enters capillary by diffusion
              • Excess drains into lymph vessels
                • Empties back into superior vena cava
                • White blood cells formed at lymph nodes
                • Lymph also contains fats
              • Oededma is swelling caused by excess tissue fluid due to lack of protein
          • Oxygen
            • Transported by heamoglobin
              • 4 protein chains with 4 heam iron groups
                • One oxygen attached to each
              • Respiration produces CO2 which forms carbonic acid in red blood cells and lowers pH
                • Causes O2 to unload
              • Lugworms have a high affinity for oxygen as their burrows are covered by water
              • Mice have a high respiration rate so a low affinity for oxygen so loads is loaded
        • Sub-stomatal air space is moist
        • Guard cells can close stomata
        • Spongy mesophyll cells have large air spaces
        • Xerophytes
          • Thick waxy cuticle
          • Small leaf surface area
          • Stomatal hairs
    • Loss of genetic diversity
      • Genetic bottleneck
        • Population reduced dramatically
          • Small range of alleles
      • Founder  effect
        • Small colony
          • Small range of alleles
      • Agriculture
        • monoculture
        • Selective breeding
        • Cutting down rainforests leads to desertification
    • DNA
      • Nucleotides
        • Sugar
        • Phosphate
        • Base
          • Complimentary bases joined by H bonds
        • Phosphodiester bonds
          • Polynucleotides
          • Stable
            • Complimentary bases joined by H bonds
      • Two antiparallel strands
      • Double helix
      • Long so contains lots of information
      • DNA replication
        • Semi conservative
          • DNA helicase unzips
            • DNA poiymerase joins nucleotides
              • Enzymes
            • Enzymes
        • Mitosis
          • Interphase
            • Not replicating
            • DNA replicated
          • Prophase
            • Chromosomes condensed and nucleolus disappears
          • Metaphase
            • Chromosomes line up on theequator of cell
            • Spindle fibres connect to centriolers
              • Taxol is an anticancer drug that prevents breakdown of spindle fibres
          • Anaphase
            • Chromatids split
            • Pulled by motor proteins
          • Telophase
            • Two new cells formed after cytokinesis
        • Meiosis
          • One diploiud cell forms four haploid cells
          • Firstly homologous chromosomes are seperated then the individual chromatids split in the second divisikion
          • Variation
            • Independent assortment
              • A mixture of different maternal and paternal chromosomes after the 1st division
            • Crossing over
              • Occurs in the 1st division when bivalents of maternal and paternal chromosomes are formed andf genes are swapped
              • Occurs at chiasmata
            • Random fertilisation
      • DNA
      • Exons and introns
      • Mutations
        • Antibiotic resistance
          • Antibitoics
            • Must be selectively toxic
              • Affects 70s ribosomes
                • Prevents cell divisoion
                  • Mitosis
                    • Interphase
                      • Not replicating
                      • DNA replicated
                    • Prophase
                      • Chromosomes condensed and nucleolus disappears
                    • Metaphase
                      • Chromosomes line up on theequator of cell
                      • Spindle fibres connect to centriolers
                        • Taxol is an anticancer drug that prevents breakdown of spindle fibres
                    • Anaphase
                      • Chromatids split
                      • Pulled by motor proteins
                    • Telophase
                      • Two new cells formed after cytokinesis
          • Penicillinase enzyme caused by a mutation
            • Raqndom and not caused by the prescence of the antibiotic
            • Vertical gene transmission
              • Binary fission
              • Bacteria with resistance thrive if antibiotics are prewsent asd competing bactyeria are killed
                • Natural selection
            • Horizontal gene transmission
              • genes passed by conjugation
              • Plasmids passed through a pilus
              • Causes multiple resistance
            • Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is resistanrt to streptomysin
        • Wrapped yp with histones to form chromatin
          • Coils to form chromosomes during replication
            • Two chromatids joined by a centromere
      • Classification
        • A species can breed to produce fertile offspring and share a common ancestor
          • Courtship behaviour
            • Recognises members of the same species
            • Attracts a mate that is capable of breeding
            • Forms a pair bond to raise opffspring
        • Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
        • DNA sequencing can be used to compare organisms
        • DNA hybridisation
          • Dna strand of two organisms is combined
          • Similar organisms will have lots off H bind between bases so it will take lots of heat to break the strands apart
        • Proteins can be copared by injecting a rabbit with the protein, so it produces antibodies. These antibodies are combined with thge protein from different species and a varying amount of porecipitate is formed through Agglutination
      • Mg ions are surrounded by porhyrin to make chlorophyll
        • Ions
          • Untitled
          • Untitled

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