fundamental ideas

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  • fundamental ideas
    • atoms elements ans compounds
      • all substances are made of atoms
      • elements contain only one type of atom
      • compounds contain more than one type of atom
      • an atom has a tiny nucleus in its center , surrounded by electrons
    • atomic structure
      • atoms are made out of protons ,neutrons and electrons
      • protons and electrons have equal charges , protons are positively charged and electrons are negatively charged
      • neutrons are neutral
      • atomic number =number of protons
      • mass number = number of protons + neutorns
      • atoms are arranged in the periodic table in order of their atomic number
    • the arrangement of electrons and atoms
      • the electrons in an atom are arranged in energy levels or shells
      • atoms with  the same number of electrons in their outer shell belong in the same group of the periodic table
      • the atoms of the un-reactive noble gas all have very stable arrangements of electrons
    • forming bonds
      • when atos from different elements react together they make compounds. the formula of a compound shows the number and type of atoms that have boned together to make a compound
      • when metals react with non metals ,charged particles called ions are formed
      • metal atoms form positively charged ions, non-metals form negatively charged ions . these oppositely charged ions attract each other in ionic bonding
      • atoms of non metals bond to each other by sharing electrons , this is called covalent bonding
    • chemical equations
      • as no new atoms are ever created or destroyed in a chemical reaction the total mass = total mass of products
      • there is the same number of each type of atoms on each side of ta balanced equation


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