To what extent did the communist dictators govern in the same way as the tsars from 1855 to 1964?

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  • To what extent did the communist dictators govern in the same way as the tsars from 1855 to 1964?
    • Repression
      • Secret police
        • Nich II were used as executioners
        • Lenin Cheka, red terror
        • NKVD 40m Gulags, 20k members also purged
        • MVD reorganised 1954 - party  gulags gone
    • Central Govt
      • Alex II & III   control of policy
      • Nich II Oct Manifesto 1905 Elected Duma
        • Fundamental Laws 1906  autocrat
      • 1918 Mensheviks/SRs left, 1 party
        • not clear - for the people
      • 1924 - Sovnarkom village -> district-> principal
      • 1918 - constituent assembly only 1 day
      • 1936 constitution Stalin head of Supreme Soviet of USSR, All 18+ vote, but Bolshevik
    • Reform (above or below?)
      • Emancipation- Crimean war serfdom didn't work,  less riots?
      • Dumas to stop 1905 revolution
        • Autocracy Fundamental Laws 1906
      • PG dismantled okhrana for stability
      • 1918 constituent assembly try to remove opposition, but ignored after 1 day
      • War Communism (ended as famine) collectivisation from above
      • K Virgin land scheme above - poorly managed
    • Local Govt
      • 1864  Zemstva maintenance of roads, fences, health
        • Property qualification
      • 1870 Duma - urban Zem. proletariat excluded
      • 1881 - Zemstva monitored by land captains
      • 1917 - abolished 3rd element (teachers, lawyers etc)
      • 1920's peasants used for ground roots support

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