Hydrocarbon 1 - Revision (updated version)

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  • Fuels and Earth Science
    • Fractional Distillation
      • Crude Oil
        • 5 The oil is heated until most of it has turned into a gas. The gases enter a fractionating column (and the liquid bit, bitumen is drained off at the bottom)
          • There's a gradient in the column, the column is hot at the bottom and cold at the top
        • 4 Can be separated into fractions- Smaller and useful mixtures containing groups of hydrocarbons of similar lengths
          • The shorter hydrocarbons have lower boiling points (They turn into liquids and drain out near to the top of the column where it's cooler)
          • The longer hydrocarbons have higher boiling points (They turn back into liquids and drain out near to the bottom of the column where it's hotter)
        • 3 The hydrocarbons found in crude oil have their carbon atoms arranged in chains and are mostly alkanes
        • 1 Main source of hydrocarbons and is used as a raw material to create lots of useful substances used in the petrochemical industry
        • Non- renewable resource (finite) so on day it will run out. It is an important source of useful substances
        • *Gases- domestic heating. *Petrol- fuel for cars. *Kerosene- fuel in aircraft. *Diesel Oil- fuel for large vehicles. *Fuel Oil- fuel for large ships. *Bitumen- Surface roads and roofs
          • Petrol, kerosene & diesel= non- renewable + obtained from crude oil
          • Good Penguins Keep Diving For Bass
    • Hydrocarbons
      • Homologous Series
        • A family of molecules that have the same general formula and share similar chemical properties. They differ by CH2 in molecular formula
        • Alkanes and alkenes are two different homologous series
          • The alkane series; Methane, Ethane, Propane, Butane Pentane
          • The alkene series; Ethane, Propene, Butene, Pentene
      • Cracking
        • 1 Splitting up long chain hydrocarbons- alkane into alkenes which are more useful
          • Alkanes are  saturated hydrocarbons- joined together by single carbon bond
            • General formula- Cn H2n+2
          • Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons- joined together by double carbon bond
            • General formula- Cn H2n
        • 2 Form of thermal decomposition- One substance break down into two new ones when you heat it
        • 3 Cracking also produces lots of alkene molecules which can be used to make polymers (mostly plastics)
        • In order for it to be useful to us, crude oil is broken down in oil refineries into its component parts, known as fractions, and these can then be used for many different purposes
      • Properties of Hydrocarbons
        • Big molecules have a higher boiling point because the forces are much stronger so they're harder to break
        • Viscosity- How easily a substance flows
          • 1 The stronger the force between hydrocarbon molecules, the harder it is for liquid to flow.
          • 2 Fractions containing longer hydrocarbons have higher viscosity.
          • 3 Fractions made up of shorter hydrocarbons have lower viscosity and are much runnier
        • Shorter hydrocarbons are easy to ignite as they have lower boiling points so tend to be gases at room temperature
          • 11 These gas molecules mix with oxygen which produces a gas mixture that would burst into flames if it comes in contact with a spark
          • 2 Longer hydrocarbons are usually liquids at room temperature. They have higher boiling points and are much harder to ignite
      • Compound that contains  Carbon & Hydrogen

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