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  • Freud
    • background
      • developed a theory of the personality development of children based on the assumption that our behavior is driven by the unconscious.
        • drives need to be satisfied otherwise there would be anxiety which could present itself as a mental illness.
          • boiling pot analogy.
        • sex crazed monkey and nagging aunt analogy.
        • our real desires or wishes may be aggressive or sexually immoral.
      • when a child reached 3-5 they would be in the phallic stage. this is where they focus their sexual pleasures on their genitals.
        • boys would focus this drive on their mother. Freud named this the oedipus complex.
          • Freud believes that the boy would now see his father as a rival for his mother and want him out of the way, even dead.
            • however the boy then thinks that the father will find out about his desire and punish him. mainly fearing castration.
              • the boy comes to terms with the fact that his father is too strong so instead strives to identify with him so that he can get a girl like his mother.
        • girls would focus this drive on their fathers.
      • Freud hadn't actually studied children yet so asked han's father, a friend and supporter to study hans.
        • when han's father begun to observe and write to freus about him he was three and a half years old, and normal.
          • when he was four he developed an irrational fear of horses. he believed that one would fall down or bite his finger.
          • Freud suggested  that he carry out psychoanalysis on the boy using his 'talking cure'
      • components of the personality
        • ID - unconscious (sex crazed monkey) operates the pleasure principle
        • EGO- unconscious and conscious (referee) amoral satisfies drives when the oppourtiunity arises.
        • SUPEREGO -unconscious  (nagging aunt) sense of write an wrong. What you should be like.
    • procedure
      • Han's  father would use the 'talking cure' and talk to him about his dreams and fantasies also observing him playing.
        • Freud believed that dreams and fantasies were symbolic representations of our unconscious desires which can be interpreted.
          • The fantasies
            • fantasy of the two giraffes
              • there was a big giraffe in his room and one which was crumpled up. The big one called out because he took the crumpled one away. He then sat on it.
                • The interpretation
                  • This was a reworking of the morning exchange in the parental bed. where Hans would try and get into his parents bed, much to the protest of his father this is what the calling out represents.
                  • The  large neck represents an adult penis.
            • fear of being bitten by white horses
              • Hans has a fear of being bitten by a white horse with blinkers and black bits around the mouth area.
                • The interpretation.
                  • the blinkers represented his fathers glasses, the black bits around the mouth his mustache and according the Freud Hans was fearful of his father and this fear was an expression of the oedipus complex.
                    • Key criticisms
                      • researcher bias - they only noted evidence that would support Freud's theory. Alternate theories were not expressed.
                      • Hans father used leading questions ' did you think of your daddy when the horse fell over?'
                      • they didn't take into account that the phobia may have gone on its own without psychoanalysis.
            • fantasy of the plumber and the fantasy of being father to his mothers children.
              • a plumber came and took his 'widdler' and his bottom replacing them with new bigger ones.
              • Hans  had several imaginary children, all of which were  mothered by his mother. His father was the children's grandfather.
                • The interpretation
                  • a plumber came and took his 'widdler' and his bottom replacing them with new bigger ones.
                  • This was a resolution of the oedipus complex.
      • longitudinal case study to collect qualitative data through clinical interviews
        • useful in describing abnormal behavior. loses objectivity because of personal relationships.
    • conclusion
      • Hans was sexually aroused by his mother.
      • he was jelous of his mothers relationship with his father but feared being castrated (his mother told him that if he continued to touch his 'widdler' she would call someone to come and chiop it off) symbolised by his fear of his finger being bitten.
      • he fantasised about taking his mother away from his father (giraffe)
        • he finally admitted wanting to marry his mother.
          • resolution came from wanting to be like his father (plumber)
  • The interpretation
    • This was a resolution of the oedipus complex.


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