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  • Freud
    • Little Hans
      • Freud studied Little Han's phobia.
      • Hans had a phobia of horses....this was because of bad memories when a child.
      • Freud only met Hans once.
      • Freud recognised the unusual relationship Han's had iwth his father
      • The study was very in depth and took place over 2 years
      • All the information that was gathered was given to Freud by Little Han's dad, through letters
      • Results
        • When Han's was about 3 years old, he became interested in his 'Widdler' (penis)
        • He then wondered whether his Mum had a widdler.
        • When Han's was about 3 1/2 years old.. His mother told him she would get the doctor to cut his 'widdler' off if he continued to play with it
        • At 3 1/2 Han's mother gave birth to a little girl Hanna, Han's expressed his jelousy towards her but this eventually disappeared.
        • Most off Han's dreams all related to 'widdlers' or 'widdling'.
        • Han's had a considerable interest in other children, especially females. He could connect to them emotionally.
        • At almost 5years old Han's father wrote to Freud. exlplaining the concerns he had for his son
        • Han's had a fantasy , that 'In the night there was a big giraffe in the room and a crumpled one: and the big one called out because the I took the crumpled one away from it. Then it stopped calling out.; and i sat down on top of the crumpled one.
        • The phobia Han's had for horses got worse until he could't face leaving the house.
        • 'He is afraid of a Horse and they will bite him on the street, and fear somehow related to being frightened of there large penises.'
        • Freud argued saying that Han's enjoyed getting into bed with his mother and had repressed longing for her. 
        • The father then went on to provide Freud with more and more detail of his sons behaviour.
        • Freud noted Han;s phobia of horses, this had developed just after he had some anxiety dreams about loshing his ,orther, and the same time he'd been warned about playing with his 'widdler'.
        • The interpretation of the 'Big' Giraffe represented his father due to the 'Big' being a big penis. Whereas the 'Crumpled' Giraffe represented his mother as the 'Crumpled' a vagina.
        • Freud also believed that the Horse phobia was related to his Father. His father wore black glasses and had a moustache and Han's was afraid of a white horse with black blinkers and blacks bits around his mouth.
        • Another fantasy Han's had was that he described a plumber came and first removed his bottom and widdler replaced it with another one of each which were both larger.
        • Freud and the rather interpreted the Giraffe fantasy as Han's enjoyed getting into his parents bed in the morning but his father often objected.
        • Hans had another fantasy, that he married his mother and had he was playing with his own children. He promoted his father as the Grandfather in this fantasy.
      • Conclusions
        • Han's fantasised about taking his mother away from his father.
        • Hans tried to seduce his mother by asking her why she didn't touch his widdler when she was powdering him after a bath
        • Hans was jealous of his father's relationship with his mother and frightened of him, symbolised by a fear of fingers being bitten by horses.
        • The case study offers support to Freud's theory sexuality - The Oedipus Complex
        • Hans finally admitted he wanted to marry his mother, and played a game where he was father to her children
        • Resolution cam with wanting to be like his father
    • Pyschosexual stages of devleopment
      • Oedipus Complex
        • In the young boy, the Oedipus complex or more correctly conflict, arises because the boy develops sexual desires for his mother. He wants to possess his mother exclusively and get rid of his father to enable him to do so. Irrationally, the boy thinks that if his father were to find out about all this, his father would take away his penis.
        • A problem the little boy then sets out to resolve by imitating, copying and joining in masculine dad-type behaviours. This is called identification, and is how the three-to-five year old boy resolves his Oedipus complex. Identification means internally adopting the values, attitudes and behaviours of another person. The consequence of this is that the boy takes on the male gender role, and adopts an ego ideal and values that become the superego.
      • Oral Stage
        • Where pleasure is gained first from passively and dependently sucking and swallowing and later, as the teeth emerge, from biting and chewing.
      • Anal Stage
        • Gratification shifts to the anus where pleasure is gained first from expelling and playng with faeces and then, during toilet training from holding on to and controlling bowel movements.
      • Phallic Stage
        • Sensitivity now becomes concentrated in the genitals and masturbation becomes a new source of pleasure. This is resolved through the process of identification which involves the child adopting the characteristics of the same sex parent.
      • Electra Complex
        • For girls, the Oedipus or Electra complex is less than satisfactory. Briefly, the girl desires the father, but realizes that she does not have a penis. This leads to the development of penis envy and the wish to be a boy.
        • The girl resolves this by repressing her desire for her father and substituting the wish for a penis with the wish for a baby. The girl blames her mother for her 'castrated state' and this creates great tension. The girl then represses her feelings and identifies with the mother to take on the female gender role.
      • Latency Stage
        • No further psychosexual development takes place during this stage The libido is dormant. Freud thought that most sexual impulses are repressed during the latent stage and sexual energy can be sublimated towards school work, hobbies and friendships. Much of the child's energies arc channelled into developing new skills and acquiring new knowledge and play becomes largely confined to other children of the same gender.  
      • Genital Stage
        • Is the last stage of Freud's psychosexual theory of personality development and begins in puberty. It is a time of adolescent sexual experimentation, the successful resolution of which is settling down in a loving one-to-one relationship with another in our 20's or so.  Sexual instinct is directed to heterosexual pleasure, rather than self-pleasure during the phallic stage. 
    • The study he did on Little Han's was a CASE STUDY
  • Pyschosexual stages of devleopment
    • Oedipus Complex
      • In the young boy, the Oedipus complex or more correctly conflict, arises because the boy develops sexual desires for his mother. He wants to possess his mother exclusively and get rid of his father to enable him to do so. Irrationally, the boy thinks that if his father were to find out about all this, his father would take away his penis.
      • A problem the little boy then sets out to resolve by imitating, copying and joining in masculine dad-type behaviours. This is called identification, and is how the three-to-five year old boy resolves his Oedipus complex. Identification means internally adopting the values, attitudes and behaviours of another person. The consequence of this is that the boy takes on the male gender role, and adopts an ego ideal and values that become the superego.
    • Oral Stage
      • Where pleasure is gained first from passively and dependently sucking and swallowing and later, as the teeth emerge, from biting and chewing.
    • Anal Stage
      • Gratification shifts to the anus where pleasure is gained first from expelling and playng with faeces and then, during toilet training from holding on to and controlling bowel movements.
    • Phallic Stage
      • Sensitivity now becomes concentrated in the genitals and masturbation becomes a new source of pleasure. This is resolved through the process of identification which involves the child adopting the characteristics of the same sex parent.
    • Electra Complex
      • For girls, the Oedipus or Electra complex is less than satisfactory. Briefly, the girl desires the father, but realizes that she does not have a penis. This leads to the development of penis envy and the wish to be a boy.
      • The girl resolves this by repressing her desire for her father and substituting the wish for a penis with the wish for a baby. The girl blames her mother for her 'castrated state' and this creates great tension. The girl then represses her feelings and identifies with the mother to take on the female gender role.
    • Latency Stage
      • No further psychosexual development takes place during this stage The libido is dormant. Freud thought that most sexual impulses are repressed during the latent stage and sexual energy can be sublimated towards school work, hobbies and friendships. Much of the child's energies arc channelled into developing new skills and acquiring new knowledge and play becomes largely confined to other children of the same gender.  
    • Genital Stage
      • Is the last stage of Freud's psychosexual theory of personality development and begins in puberty. It is a time of adolescent sexual experimentation, the successful resolution of which is settling down in a loving one-to-one relationship with another in our 20's or so.  Sexual instinct is directed to heterosexual pleasure, rather than self-pleasure during the phallic stage. 

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