Formation of Relationships

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  • Created by: Ellie
  • Created on: 27-10-15 08:58
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  • Formation
    • Reward Need Satisfaction Theory
      • Bryne & Clore (1970)
      • 'We are motivated to get rewards which reflect our unmet needs'
        • Such as company, financial security and a family
        • Mutual Attraction occurs when both partners needs are met
      • Based on both operant and classical conditioning
        • Operant Conditioning:A relationship is positively reinforced because its rewarding.
        • Classical Conditioning: We associate people with positive situations such as a holiday and this makes them desirable.
      • Supporting Evidence
        • May & Hamilton (1980)
          • Females were asked to rate photos of males while pleasant or unpleasant music played.
            • The pleasant music lead to higher ratings
      • Evaluation
        • Theory has face validity (sounds logical)
        • Accounts for research findings
          • The theory explains why proximity, and attractiveness are important when choosing partners
        • Hays (1985)
          • Found that we gain satisfaction from giving and receiving
        • Deterministic
          • theory assumes that people are selfish and only want to receive rewards.
        • Reductionist
          • Rewards aren't the sole reason we enter a relationship
        • Gender Differences
          • Lott (1994) found taht women are more attentive too a partners needs than their own
        • It doesn't account for unrewarding relationships
        • Based on lab research which lacks ecological validity & cant be generalsied
          • Caspi & Herbener found evidence in real life couples.
    • The Matching Hypothesis
      • Bryne, Clore & Smeaton (1986)
      • 'Similarity Promotes Liking'
        • The model emphasises similarity of personality and attitudes
          • Personality
            • We are  attracted to people with a similar personality to ours
              • Caspi & Herbener (1990): married couples with similar traits are happier than with dissimilar traits
          • Attitudes
            • Individuals who disagree go through attitude alignment to reach a comprimise
      • 2 stages to forming a romantic relationship
        • 1) sort out potential partners by avoiding people with dissimilarities
          • 2) The individual then picks out the most similar person from the people left after stage 1.
      • Evaluation
        • Similarity or disimilarity
          • The dissimilarity hypothesis states taht we are first attracted to people who have similar attitudes and as they get to know each other those who discover more dissimilarities become less attracted.
        • Personality & Attitudes
          • reductionist as they aren't the only factors involved in formation
            • Yoshida (1972) states there are other factors such as self concept, attractiveness and socio-economic status involved in formation.
        • But why?
          • We choose people with similar attitudes to us so that they can validate them and make us feel like we are clever and right. This boosts our self concept and makes them more attractive
        • Mundane Realism
          • Lab Studies


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