Fusion and Fission

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  • Created by: R.Perkins
  • Created on: 04-03-14 09:57
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  • Fission and Fusion
    • Nuclear Fission
      • Nuclear Reactors
        • Controlled chain reaction occurs
        • Atomic nuclei split up and release heat energy
          • Uranium- 235
          • Plutonium - 239
        • Heat is used to heat water (creating steam) which is used to drive a turbine
          • Turbine -> Generator (generates the electricity)
        • Parts of a nuclear power station
          • Steam Generator
            • Location where water is heated by the enrgy generated from the cain reaction
          • Control rods
            • Absorb neutrons
            • Control the rate of reaction
          • Coolant pump
      • Process
        • Slow moving neutron must be absorbed into a uranium/plutonium nucleus
          • Gaining a neutron makes the atom unstable
          • Nucleus splits
        • Each time this occurs, two/three neutrons are removed by the atom
          • These may hit other atoms and continue this process (chain reaction)
        • Should a large atom split, two smaller nuceli are formed because of the vast numbers of the neturons within them
          • These nuceli are typically radioactive
      • PROs and CONs
        • Provides large amounts of energy, much more than any other chemical reaction
        • Remiments are radioactives and incredibly difficult to dispose of safely
          • Risk of radiation leaks
        • Cheap source of power generation
        • Decommissioning a nuclear power plant takes approximately 50 years
    • Nuclear Fusion
      • Process
        • Nuceli boasting a small mass number (eg. hydrogen and helium) can join to create a larger nucleus
      • PROs and CONs
        • Releases a signficiantly large amount of energy, compared with fission.
        • Hydogen is an abudant resource
        • Leaves a minimal amount of nuclear waste
          • Less of a threat to the environment
        • Fusion at only occur at extremely high temperatures
          • Approximately 10000000 Degrees Celius
          • Hydrogen cannot be contained within these conditons unless it is exposed to a very strong magnetic field.

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