F211 Features of mammalian lung that adapt it to efficient gas exchange

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  • features of the mammalian lung that adapt it to efficient gaseous exchange
    • ALVEOLI
      • thin squamous
        • short diffusion distance
          • one cell thick
      • Epithelial cells produce surfactant
        • reduces tension and prevents collapse
      • one cell thick
    • CILIATED EPITHELIAL CELLS
      • Waft away mucus and  dirt
    • GOBLET CELLS
      • Produces mucus to trap dust
        • CILIATED EPITHELIAL CELLS
          • Waft away mucus and  dirt
    • CARTILAGE
      • holds airway open
    • SMOOTH MUSCLE
      • Constricts and controls diameter of airway
    • ELASTIC FIBRES
      • recoil, aiding ventilation by expelling air out
        • VENTILATION
          • Increase [O2] in alveoli so higher than in blood
            • maintains good conc. gradient--> efficient diffusion
              • Decrease [CO2] in alveoli so lower than in blood
          • Decrease [CO2] in alveoli so lower than in blood
    • ERYTHROCYTES
      • transport O2 and CO2
    • VENTILATION
      • Increase [O2] in alveoli so higher than in blood
        • maintains good conc. gradient--> efficient diffusion
      • MACROPHAGES & NEUTOPHILS
        • engulf and destroy pathogens
    • MACROPHAGES & NEUTOPHILS
      • engulf and destroy pathogens

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